In order to climb out of bankruptcy, General Growth is expected to sell many of its properties. Since October it has been trying to sell its marquee retail properties in Las Vegas, which include the Fashion Show Mall, Grand Canal Shoppes at the Venetian, and the Shoppes at the Palazzo.
"Those owners that took on too much debt have ultimately paid the price," said Michael P. Niemira, chief economist at the International Council of Shopping Centers.
Last spring, General Growth's stock traded as high as $44.23. Today it is worth pennies.
The company said shoppers at its malls will not be affected by its decision to file for bankruptcy protection.
"Our restructuring will be invisible to the customers who visit our properties every day," President and Chief Operating Officer Thomas H. Nolan Jr. said during a morning conference call.
Niemira said the industry has "really been battered by every part" of this recession.
First, housing stores saw problems. Then apparel. Now every store, including the once-immune luxury retailers.
"Clearly, there are lots of problems in the retail industry, and they range from the weakness in consumer demand to the debt issues that some companies are facing," Niemira said.
This year was "the weakest holiday season since at least 1970," Niemira said.
He said stores are doing everything from slashing prices to laying off workers to try to stay afloat. Retailers, he said, account for 9 percent of the nation's jobs but represent 25 percent of the recent employment declines.
As mall owners try to refinance existing loans, they find themselves struggling to get investors to give them money and -- like many homeowners -- they find their real estate is worth less than it was just a few years ago.
Whalin said the first major blow to malls came in August 2005, when Macy's bought out rival May Department Stores. In one giant move, retailers, such as Marshall Field's, Filene's, Hecht's, Foley's, Robinsons-May and Kaufmann's all fell under the Macy's flag.
A mall that once had Macy's anchoring one end and Filene's at the other suddenly had two Macy's. The company quickly moved to close its redundant stores, and the malls lost large tenants.
"The value of their real estate has diminished for a variety of reasons, certainly not the least of which was Macy's gobbling all the regional department stores and essentially closing some of those stores and struggling with others," Whalin said.
But it's not just big chains that are shutting their doors as we fall deeper into a recession.
At the beginning of 2006, just 7.3 percent of retail spaces -- from malls to strip malls to stand-alone stores -- were empty, according to the National Association of Realtors. That figure now hovers just below 10 percent, and for next year the group forecasts a 12.4 percent vacancy rate.
And after a disappointing Christmas shopping season, those numbers could climb ever higher.
The amount of money spent at the nation's retailers from Nov. 1 through Christmas Eve was down 5.5 percent to 8 percent compared with last year, according to MasterCard SpendingPulse, which tracks retail sales for all forms of payment, including check, cash and credit card.
Lawrence Yun, chief economist for the National Association of Realtors, anticipates a 7 percent drop this year in retail rents as a larger supply of vacant stores comes on the market.