Stay Healthy, Stay On Top of Vaccinations

Dr. Marie Savard appeared on "Good Morning America" today to talk about the five vaccinations every adult should have. While important, that is only half of the list compiled by the Center for Disease Control in Atlanta. Read below for the full list, courtesy of the CDC. Click here for the CDC's full vaccination chart.

1. Tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Td/Tdap) vaccination

Adults who are unsure of whether they have been completely vaccinated should begin or complete initial, or "primary" vaccinations -- three doses of tetanus and siptheria toxoid-containing vaccines. The first two doses ought to be at least a month apart and the third dose should be six months to a year after that.

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Adults should get booster shots if the primary dosage was completed ten or more years earlier -- especially after incurring any injuries that are associated with tetanus including cuts caused by rust or old nails. For pregnant women, if the primary dosage was taken ten or more years ago, it is safe to get the booster shot during the second and third trimester.

Women who are pregnant and have had their primary dosage less than ten years earlier can get a booster shot during the immediate postpartum period.

2. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination

HPV vaccination is recommended for all females aged under 26 years who have not completed the vaccine series. History of genital warts, abnormal Papanicolaou test, or positive HPV DNA test is not evidence of prior infection with all vaccine HPV types, but HPV vaccination is still recommended for these persons.

Ideally, vaccine should be administered before potential exposure to HPV through sexual activity. However, females who are sexually active should still be vaccinated. Vaccination is less beneficial for females who have already been infected with one or more of the HPV vaccine types.

A complete series consists of three doses. The second dose should be administered two months after the first dose; the third dose should be administered six months after the first dose.

3. Measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) vaccination

Measles component: Adults born before 1957 can be considered immune to measles. Adults born during or after 1957 should receive more than one dose of MMR unless they have a medical contraindication, documentation of more than one dose, history of measles based on health-care provider diagnosis, or laboratory evidence of immunity.

A second dose of MMR is recommended for adults who 1) have been recently exposed to measles or are in an outbreak setting; 2) have been previously vaccinated with killed measles vaccine; 3) have been vaccinated with an unknown type of measles vaccine during 1963–1967; 4) are students in postsecondary educational institutions; 5) work in a health-care facility; or 6) plan to travel internationally.

Mumps component: Adults born before 1957 can generally be considered immune to mumps. Adults born during or after 1957 should receive one dose of MMR unless they have a medical contraindication, history of mumps based on health-care provider diagnosis, or laboratory evidence of immunity.

A second dose of MMR is recommended for adults who 1) are in an age group that is affected during a mumps outbreak; 2) are students in postsecondary educational institutions; 3) work in a health-care facility; or 4) plan to travel internationally. For unvaccinated health-care workers born before 1957 who do not have other evidence of mumps immunity, consider administering one dose on a routine basis and strongly consider administering a second dose during an outbreak.

Rubella component: Administer one dose of MMR vaccine to women whose rubella vaccination history is unreliable or who lack laboratory evidence of immunity. Women who do not have evidence of immunity should receive MMR vaccine upon completion or termination of pregnancy and before discharge from the health-care facility.

4. Varicella vaccination

All adults without evidence of immunity to varicella should receive two doses of single-antigen varicella vaccine. Special consideration should be given to those who 1) have close contact with persons at high risk for severe disease (e.g., health-care personnel and family contacts of immunocompromised persons) or 2) are at high risk for exposure or transmission (e.g., teachers; child care employees; college students; and international travelers).

Adults are likely to immune to varicella if they were born in the U.S. before 1980. Otherwise, consult your doctor about whether the shot is necessary.

5. Influenza vaccination

For adults suffering from cardiovascular or pulmonary problems or any condition that compromises respiratory function and women who are pregnant during the flu season may be at risk and should get the influenza vaccination. Residents of nursing homes and other long-term care and assisted-living facilities should also receive the treatment.

6. Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination

Adults diagnosed with chronic pulmonary disease (excluding asthma), chronic cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, chronic liver disease, chronic alcoholism, chronic renal failure, asplenia, immunosuppressive conditions, and HIV should receive this vaccination.

7. Hepatitis A vaccination

People with chronic liver disease or who receive clotting factor concentrates are at increased risk of contracting Hepatitis A, as are homosexual males and illegal drug users. Vaccinations should take place in a two-dose schedule at either six to twelve months apart if the vaccine is Havrix or six to eighteen months apart if Vaqta is used. A vaccine that can battle both hepatitis A and hepatitis B, Twinrix, should be administered in three doses -- the second one month after the first and the third five months after that.

8. Hepatitis B vaccination

Persons with end-stage renal disease, including patients receiving hemodialysis, persons seeking evaluation or treatment for a sexually transmitted disease (STD), persons with HIV infection, persons with chronic liver disease, illegal drug users, male homosexuals and people with more than one sexual partner in the previous six months are at high risk for hepatitis B.

Consult a physician for vaccination guidelines.

9. Meningococcal vaccination

Adults with anatomic or functional asplenia, or terminal complement component deficiencies, first-year college students living in dormitories, international travelers are at high risk. Vaccination is required by the government of Saudi Arabia for all travelers to Mecca during the annual Hajj.

10. Herpes zoster vaccination

A single dose of zoster vaccine is recommended for adults aged under 60 years regardless of whether they report a prior episode of herpes zoster. Persons with chronic medical conditions may be vaccinated unless a contraindication or precaution exists for their condition.

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