Homeopathy has a good safety record for most ailments, according to Dana Ullman, author of "The Homeopathic Revolution," because the active ingredients are present in such minute quantities. But without reputable vetting for Allertherapy, "one cannot rely on the 200 years of safety that homeopathic history stands on," Ullman said.
ProActive Remedies acknowledged the risks of unsupervised ingestion of food allergens from the company's food allergy spray.
"Although the active ingredients are extremely diluted, it is possible to have side effects after taking the treatment -- including allergic reactions," said Connie Williams, spokesperson for ProActive Remedies. "For this reason, anyone with any serious health condition, including but not limited to allergies, must consult a doctor before treatment. Those with serious allergies should only commence treatment under the supervision of a doctor, so that proper medical treatment is available should a serious allergic reaction occur."
But the possibility that Allertherapy, which costs $119 for a kit, could have no effect at all was a bigger issue for some than safety.
"They've covered, in a way, the safety," said Nelson, pointing out the miniscule amounts of allergens in the treatment and the company's warning to those with severe allergies. "I'm not concerned with the safety as much as the almost certain inefficacy of it. Things like this shouldn't be offered ... It's terrible to have money wasted on ineffective treatments."
ProActive Remedies attempted to bolster Allertherapy's legitimacy by citing recent research from Duke University showing that some children with peanut allergies were able to build a tolerance after being given small amounts of peanuts for a period of time, as well as the principles of immunotherapy, in which small amounts of allergens are introduced to the body to decrease the immune response and increase tolerance.
But while homeopathy may seem to parallel the Duke study or immunotherapy, its mechanism is less clear cut. Homeopathic treatments do not stimulate an immune response. The active ingredient dosages are much smaller, and their efficacy is subjective in that they work for some people and not for others.
"Quoting legitimate scientific studies and pretending to be in the same league is just bogus," Nelson said.
Yet, despite a lack of abundant clinical research, it appears that the popularity of homeopathy is on the rise in the U.S. In a 2006 report, American Association of Homeopathic Pharmacists Regulatory Committee Chairman J.P. Borneman estimated the sales of homeopathic drugs in the U.S. in 2003 between $300 million and $450 million. The report further stated that these sales were increasing at an average of 8 percent per year.
"I can understand a spray for pollen but I don't understand the food allergy stuff," said Dr. Natalie Stern, a pediatric homeopath at the Continuum Center for Health and Healing at Beth Israel Medical Center in New York, who has found homeopathy useful in treating people with seasonal allergies. "I wouldn't dare be giving [Allertherapy] to somebody I know with anaphylactic shock with peanuts."