External factors are so influential that studies examining the relationship between environment and IQ have linked the score with everything from breast feeding to medication to parent's education. Older siblings, for example, develop higher IQs than younger siblings, according to a 2007 study published in the journal Science. Another study from the online journal PLoS linked low I.Q. to older fathers.
But Kazdin pointed out that stereotypes linked to "smart" kids -- that they are fond of math and science, that they are socially awkward -- are outdated and imply that proficiency in one area demands a lack in other areas.
"The idea that if you're really good at this then you're horrible at the other thing is not necessarily true at all," Kazdin said.
Still, conditions including Asperger's syndrome, Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, which are sometimes present in those with high IQ, may perpetuate such stereotypes.
"Any time you deviate from the normal group, you're going to feel ostracized," Lawlis said.
Hannah Wrigley said her son can feel the difference.
"I think he knows he's a bit different from his friends," she said, adding that, while Oscar makes efforts to try and talk to other children in his play group, he often ends up sitting alone and playing by himself.
"He asks questions about why they do the things they do and I tell him they're little," Wrigley said. "And he says, 'They're not little, they're the same as I am...'
"I do feel a bit sad about that sort of thing."
Wrigley said that, for now, Oscar might prefer to chat with adults about subjects that interest him, such as global warming or chess, and choose to play physical games with friends his own age. But she added that providing him opportunities to make friends and socialize will help combat potential isolation.
"I think he will end up having lots of different friends for different things," Wrigley said.