Good parents will avoid unsafe opportunities for exploring infants and use gentle redirection to avoid most occasions for discipline. Dr. James Dobson of Focus on the Family, a proponent of corporal punishment in some circumstances, states that there is no excuse for spanking babies or children under 15-18 months of age. The American Academy of Pediatrics states that children less than 18 months are more likely to be injured by spanking and unlikely to understand the connection between the behavior and the punishment. They do not, outright, advocate against all corporal punishment, but take a more moderate approach in recommending that parents be encouraged to develop other methods of effective discipline.
Spanking may be nearing the end of its worldwide run as the favorite method of disciplining children. It has been outlawed in 24 European, Asian, and South American countries in efforts to eliminate this type of violence. Its use in schools and institutions has been sharply proscribed in the U.S. Recent data suggest that less than half of U.S. children have been spanked in the last year, though as many as 90 percent of children ages 3-5 have been spanked.
An immediate target for behavior change is ending the widespread practice of using an object such as a belt or a stick when disciplining a child; nearly 50 percent of U.S. children between 7 and 9 years old have been hit with an object in the past year.
We don't expect an outright ban on corporal punishment but urge its consideration. More limited bans clarifying national values, such as a legislative bans on use of objects to hit children and a ban on hitting children not old enough to walk, might be more politically feasible. Raising children is challenging work, but parents in the 24 countries where corporal punishment is prohibited -- and many millions of U.S. parents -- are raising well-behaved and productive citizens without spanking.
As physicians, we see the challenges of parents in our clinic and hospital everyday. Parents need support for child rearing and to learn a broad range of skills for teaching the lessons of childhood. We encourage parents to learn about time out, time in, positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, and token economies (or reward systems) among other techniques.
A comprehensive and consistent approach, without violence, by loving parents can teach children the lessons of growing up that we all want them to learn without instilling lessons that society can ill afford.
Dr. Zolotor is an assistant professor of Family Medicine and Dr. Runyan is a professor of Pediatrics and Social Medicine, both at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Both Runyan and Zolotor see of children with injuries suspected for abuse. They both have an extensive history of research and publication regarding family violence, child abuse, and corporal punishment.