"Patients like Radene are losing medicines that work for them. A lot of this is unreasonable."
According to data collected in 2006 by the health care analytics company Verispan, the drugs for which step therapy is most commonly used are anti-ulcer medications, with 58 percent of health insurance plans using step therapy for this class. The data also reveal that antidepressants are the fourth most common drugs subject to step therapy, with 45 percent of plans subjecting these to step therapy. Twenty-six percent of plans use step therapy for pain drugs, according to Verispan, and other drugs including heart medications and antipsychotics are also on the list.
Zirkelbach argued that in most cases, patients are allowed to switch drugs if the recommended option is not working for them, and if the drug that the patient is switching to is supported by medical evidence.
"If there is a good medical reason to switch to drug A versus drug B, health plans typically allow that to happen," he said.
But he noted that how long a patient is required to stay on a given medication before making a switch varies from case to case. Doctors who prescribe a drug that is unapproved by the insurance company risk receiving what Tennant calls a "tantrum letter" from insurance companies.
"The insurance companies hire auditing firms, and they demand to know why I prescribe [patients] certain drugs," he said.
The net effect, Tennant said, is a grave imposition on the doctor-patient relationship.
"I have to say [to patients], 'I can't tell you what you should take. I can only get you to get what your insurance can pay for, and I'll design a regimen,'" he said. "For the expensive medicine, the doctor no longer chooses what he wants."
And according to a Thomson Reuters study published in the February issue of The American Journal of Managed Care, step therapy may actually be more expensive for insurance companies, at least when it comes to patients receiving medication for high blood pressure.
In the study, which was sponsored by Pfizer, researchers looked at insurance claims for 11,851 people with employer-sponsored health coverage that incorporated a step therapy protocol for high blood pressure drugs. These patients' claims were compared with those of 30,882 patients on similar medication who did not participate in a step therapy program.
What the researchers found was that the group of patients treated for hypertension under the step therapy program had 3.1 percent lower drug costs. But these savings appear to have been wiped out by the apparent increase in hospital admissions and emergency room visits. Over two years, the step therapy patients incurred $99 more in healthcare costs per quarter, on average, than the control group.
If indeed California passes anti-step therapy legislation, it would not be the first to do so. New Jersey already prohibits such plans. And even the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services may be considering regulations to limit step therapy by health plans available to Medicare patients.
But Robert Taketomo, president and CEO of the Glendale, Calif.-based managed care contracting services organization Ventegra, warned that if such legislation passed in the state, patients may find that other parts of their coverage will be cut back to compensate.