What's more, the research on cadmium toxicity is still growing, said Bruce Fowler, cadmium specialist and toxicologist from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and researchers have increasingly been lowering the threshold at which this metal can be harmful.
"It's a moving targe,t because the more sensitive tests we develop, the more we realize that even lower levels are toxic," he said.
Short of boycotting cheap jewelry or products from China, it may seem like an impossible task for parents to protect their children from the possibility of cadmium exposure, but doctors do have tips for minimizing the risk.
"I like to tell people to buy books, avoid cheap costume jewelry and gumball machine jewelry, and try to keep toys and other products out of their children's mouths. There are so many kids toys manufactured in other countries so it is hard to say don't buy those, but I would be careful buying those," said Dr. Adam Spanier, at the department of Pediatrics at Hershey Medical Center.
Because cadmium accumulates in the body over time, it's important to reduce exposure on multiple levels. For instance, cigarette smoke is a major source of cadmium exposure, so keeping kids away from secondhand smoke is important, Spanier said. In the household, cadmium is found in some batteries, so these should be kept out of the reach of children as well, according to CDC recommendations on the metal.
Cadmium poisoning often goes undiagnosed because in the short term it manifests as gastrointestinal problems, vomiting and diarrhea, which are general enough to be mistaken for the flu or a number of other problems, says Spanier.
Testing for cadmium poisoning should be sought on suspected exposure, before a child shows symptoms. For more information, parents can contact their local poison control, he adds.