Miller said the findings emphasize the need for family planning clinics to provide intervention programs to combat both reproductive control and partner violence.
Key strategies include advising women about "invisible" forms of birth control, such as injectable and intrauterine contraceptives, as well as easy access to emergency contraception.
"If we can identify that reproductive control is going on," Miller said, "we can offer the woman methods for birth control that the partner can't mess with."
Mays added that physicians and counselors should talk about women's empowerment with regard to reproduction during reproductive health visits.
"It tends to be left out," Mays said. "We talk about getting the prescription [for birth control] and its side effects. But we really need to have a discussion around whether the girl is feeling ready for sex."