The family of Junior Seau, the NFL football star who died last week, is now reconsidering donating his brain to science, backing off their decision last week to let his brain be examined for signs of traumatic injury.
"The Seau family is currently revisiting several important family decisions and placing them on hold in order to confer with their elders," said Pastor Shawn Mitchell, the longtime San Diego Chargers' chaplain, in a statement. The Seaus are of Samoan descent, and elders are the most respected and highly regarded in a Samoan family. They are often consulted when making family decisions. It is unclear when the family now plans to make its final decision regarding the brain donation.
"They really want to do everything right," Mitchell said.
Seau, 43, who played for the Chargers as well as the Miami Dolphins and New England Patriots, was found dead last Wednesday at his home in Oceanside, Calif., apparently from a self-inflicted gunshot wound. Medical examiners ruled his death a suicide.
On Thursday evening, the family said they hoped that the brain donation would help others "down the road."
Seau's death has sent shock waves through the sports and science worlds, but experts have cautioned that it is too early to determine whether Seau's suicide was linked to potential concussions he likely experienced during his 20-year NFL career.
On Thursday, former quarterback Kurt Warner said on "The Dan Patrick Show" that he'd prefer his children not to play football because of the risks that have been associated with it in recent years. He backtracked Friday after Amani Toomer, a retired NFL player who appears regularly on NBC SportsTalk, called Warner "a little disingenuous" for his comments.
"I think Kurt Warner needs to keep his opinions to himself when it comes to this. Everything that he's gotten in his life has come from playing football," said Toomer Thursday on SportsTalk. Toomer said he would "definitely" let his own children play football.
Warner responded to the comments on ESPN Radio's "Hill and Schlereth" show Friday. While he said he is grateful for all that football has brought him, "At the end of the day, you know, I've seen how my wife looks at this game when I'm out there getting hit."
"And it's different when you put on a parent's hat," Warner said. "And, yeah, I want my kids to play and I want them to be healthy and I'd love them to have a great, long career, whether that's collegiate, whether that's professional…But as a parent, I can't avoid the fact that it's a dangerous sport, and it's a violent sport."
Jacopo Annese, director of the University of California at San Diego's Brain Observatory, said there has not been a definitive link shown between blows to the head and such disorders as depression, dementia and Alzheimer's, but he did say there is strong scientific and anecdotal evidence.
"However ghoulish it may appear to the majority of the public, the work that is conducted postmortem is essential to validate this hypothesis, because the important clues are at the cellular level and we can't see these with MRI, but we can with our microscopes," said Annese.
While research methodology has not changed dramatically, the questions have evolved, offering clues into the potential lifetime adverse effects of hits and concussions.
"Like searching for the link between traumatic injury and more subtle and insidious effects like depression, suicide, and dementia," said Annese. "This has been particularly crucial in the world of sports where unprecedented body mass and acceleration create the scenario for severe trauma if there is a collision."
Warner said his comments were in his role as a father, and, while he loves the game, he wants to see his children take care of their children and families.
"My kids are 13 years old and my son has already suffered a concussion," Warner said on ESPN. "Do I think about that? Of course I think about that. And the bottom line for me as a parent is, as much as I love the game and what it's all about and what it's done for me, the most important thing for me is the safety of my kids. And so that's my point, is that I consider it. And it's in my thought process. And when they play and when they want to play and when they talk about playing professionally, I'm very conscious of that."
The death of Seau, a 12-time Pro Bowl player, came only one day before more than 100 former NFL players filed a federal lawsuit in Atlanta, claiming the league did not properly protect them against concussions and did not provide proper medical care after they finished their careers.
The AP reported that the league has said any accusation that the NFL intentionally misled players is not true.
Seau's death bears a resemblance to that of other athletes in hard-hitting sports, including Chicago Bears football player Dave Duerson. Duerson shot himself in the chest in February of last year. Duerson's family filed a wrongful death suit against the NFL, saying the league did not protect against concussions.
Several former NFL players have committed suicide in recent years, and many experts believe the deaths could be related to repeated blows to the head. In addition to Duerson, ex-Pittsburgh Steelers offensive lineman Terry Long and Philadelphia Eagles defensive back Andre Waters took their own lives. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy, or CTE, a degenerative and progressive disease found in people who have experienced multiple blows to the head, has shown up in the brains of several former athletes who committed suicide, including Duerson.
CTE has similar brain features to those of Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Lou Gehrig's disease.
As of October, more than 500 current and former professional athletes agreed to donate their brains to the VA Brain Bank, which works in affiliation with the Boston University's Center for the Study of Traumatic Encephalopathy.
Annese said the Brain Observatory at UCSD has been in contact with several athletes who are considering participating in the brain donation program.
"Like Mr. Seau, they feel that they personally hold many of the answers needed to know how to make their sport safer for future generations," said Annese. "The examination of the brain is only the final and definitive chapter of a long narrative that we create working with our participants."
While Seau was never listed on any NFL injury report as having a concussion, according to ESPN, his family tells a different story. When asked whether Seau had experienced any concussions in his career, his ex-wife, Deboer, said last week, "Of course he had," according to the Associated Press. "He always bounced back and kept on playing. He's a warrior. That didn't stop him. I don't know what football player hasn't. It's not ballet. It's part of the game."
Repeated blows to the head may disturb neurotransmitters that affect mood, and may also damage parts of the brain that have to do with impulse control and the ability to weigh the long-term consequences of decisions.
But until more research has been done, experts caution against definitively linking the hits Seau took on the field and his suicide.
In 2009, the NFL instituted new rules that require clearance from independent neurologists to allow players who suffered concussions to return to the field. The league also imposed stricter guidelines to reduce the number of helmet-to-helmet hits.
"What happened to Junior Seau is terribly sad," said Annese. "The least us scientists can do is to match his dedication to his sport and his community with our own dedication to research, finding the reasons for such tragedy, so that it does not have to happen again."