The speech was streamed live on the White House Web site, and later, fully translated transcripts will be posted in 13 different languages, including Hebrew, Pashto and Indonesian.
The State Department made it possible for people to receive live text messages about the speech in four languages -- English, Arabic, Urdu and Persian -- and for them to text feedback that the department will post on its Web site.
The speech gave the president the opportunity to lay out his vision for a new and improved relationship between the United States and Muslims.
"There has been a breach, an undeniable breach between America and the Islamic world, and that breach has been years in the making," White House senior adviser David Axelrod said. "It's not going to be reversed with one speech. It's not going to be revered perhaps in one administration."
Axelrod said there are "enormous consequences" for the United States and the rest of the world to launch this dialogue, and the president wants it to be open and honest.
"This is not a trip that we ran though some political filter," he said. "This is a mission that the president has talked [about] throughout in terms of improving these relationships, opening up avenues of understanding between the Islamic world and America so that small groups of extremists can't exploit the mistrust that's existed."
White House officials said Obama asked his staff to reach out to a broad range of experts in the U.S. government, in Washington and beyond, including Muslim Americans. Officials said Obama was engaged in the speech from the beginning stages and provided all of the vision and a lot of the content.
"For the last week, he's really just been frequently holed up with his draft and editing it very heavily," said White House speechwriter Ben Rhodes.
ABC News' Huma Khan, Sunlen Miller, Habibullah Khan, Matt Gutman and Jim Scuitto contributed to this report.