Peterson had the procedure performed by Dr. William Meyers at the Vincera Institute in Philadelphia. Peterson, who had his adductor muscle repaired, is expected to make a full recovery in six weeks, the team said.
Meyers performed Peterson's sports hernia surgery last offseason.
Peterson was plagued by the groin injury for much of the second half of the season, missing two of the Vikings' final four games and seeing limited action in the other two. It seemed to rob him of his breakaway speed, and he carried just 18 times for 58 yards in the Vikings' last four games, as he lost his grip on his second consecutive rushing title.
But Peterson still managed to carry the Vikings' offense while playing with the injury, recording a combined 67 carries in back-to-back overtime games against Green Bay and Chicago in Weeks 12 and 13. Peterson rushed for 1,266 yards and 10 touchdowns this season, after going for 2,097 yards and 12 touchdowns in 2012 en route to his first career MVP award.
He had already opted out of the Pro Bowl, choosing to rest both his strained groin and the sprained right foot he sustained on Dec. 8 in Baltimore.
ESPN.com Vikings reporter Ben Goessling contributed to this report.