Ian Fleming, the creator of James Bond, was born 100 years ago today. But while his hero's Cold War concerns may have dated, some of Bond's gadgets have not.
Some movies and stories used existing technologies such as jetpacks (Dr No), autogyros (You Only Live Twice) and GPS-capable phones (Casino Royale). But many of Bond's toys were way ahead of their time – and only now are we beginning to catch up.
Fake fingerprints (Diamonds Are Forever)
In what has become known as the "Gummi Bear Attack", Japanese cryptographer Tsutomu Matsumoto showed in 2002 that a person's fingerprints could indeed be copied and used to create fake ones with relative ease, as suggested in Diamonds Are Forever.
Using gelatine as found in chewy sweets like gummi bears, he showed that a latent print could be lifted from a glass and used to fool 80 per cent of fingerprint scanners tested.
Phone-controlled car (Tomorrow Never Dies)
In 1997's Tomorrow Never Dies, Bond becomes his own backseat driver, steering his car using a touchpad on a phone showing the view out of the front window on its display.
Mobile phones with accelerometers can be used to control toy cars using free software dubbed ShakerRacer. The user holds the phone like a steering wheel and tilts it in the direction they want the car to drive (see video). It's an approach that looks easier to use than that of Bond's gadget-master, Q, who had 007 sliding his finger over a touch pad.
Military robots controlled using the Nintendo Wii-mote were recently demonstrated by US researchers, an idea worthy of Q. They say it makes controlling a robot used to investigate unexploded bombs or mines easier, and plan to use Apple's iPhone to display video from Wii-controlled robots.
Micro-aqualung (Thunderball and Die Another Day)
One of the few Bond gadgets to make a repeat appearance, the cigar-sized mini-aqualung provided enough air for four action-packed minutes. But compressing that much air into such a small space has so far defeated engineers. The smallest emergency air supplies last about a minute, and are the size of a fist.
An alternative is to build artificial gills that let a diver "breathe" underwater indefinitely by extracting oxygen from water. But size has been a problem. Gills demonstrated on TV by Japanese firm Fuji in the 1980s could supply a diver for 30 minutes, but were the size of a coffin.
Techniques like using artificial blood to carry extracted oxygen inside an artificial gill modelled more closely on that of a fish have promised more portable sizes since. But their designs have struggled to leave the drawing board or lab bench. In fact, artificial gills will probably make their first dives aboard autonomous robot submarines, supplying oxygen to fuel cells on long oceanographic or military missions.
Invisible car (Die Another Day)
We are told that Bond's car vanishes in Die Another Day thanks to cameras recording light from one side of the vehicle and projectors recreating it on the other.
That's a roundabout way to achieve something that a remarkable new class of materials can do in real life, without electronics or computers. Metamaterials can be designed to smoothly steer light around an object, making it appear as if it weren't there.
Although the best invisibility cloaks so far have been mainly two-dimensional, they have been made to hide objects from visible light, and recent work hints that 3D invisibility cloaks are on the way.
Voice changer (Diamonds Are Forever)