Kevin Raskoff
  • Under the Sea: Marine Life Census

    Marrus orthocanna, a sea creature biologically similar to a jellyfish, photographed during NOAA's Hidden Ocean Expedition, part of the international Census of Marine Life. The animal is made up of many repeated units, which include tentacles, and multiple stomachs. Many specimens were observed between 300 and 1,500 meters deep. They can be found off the east and west coasts of North America.
    Kevin Raskoff
  • Census of Arctic and Antarctic Marine Life

    Scientists say it's time to rewrite the textbooks. The Census of Marine Life, released Monday, shows that the polar oceans are home to far more species than had previously been thought. The new census, an international effort to catalog all ocean life, documented 7,500 species in the Antarctic and 5,500 in the Arctic. Researchers were also surprised to learn that as many as 235 species are found in both polar oceans. <p> In this photo, sand fleas (amphipod crustaceans) are shown under shore ice in the Beaufort Sea, north of Alaska. Amphipods are a major food source for Arctic cod, the main prey for ice seals.
    Shawn Harper/University of Alaska Fairbanks.
  • Census of Arctic and Antarctic Marine Life

    The mimonectes sphaericus, shown here, is a commensial amphipod crustacean living on jellyfish and their kin in both the Arctic and Antarctic. The large swordlike antennae only occur on males.
    Russ Hopcroft/University of Alaska Fairbanks, Census of Marine Life.
  • Census of Arctic and Antarctic Marine Life

    Census of Marine Life Arctic researchers have discovered more than 50 gelatinous zooplankton living in the Arctic, about a quarter of which are new to the Arctic Ocean or new to science.
    Russ Hopcroft/University of Alaska Fairbanks, Census of Marine Life.
  • Census of Arctic and Antarctic Marine Life

    In this photo, a nemertean pelagonemertes rollestoni is shown hunting for zooplankton prey that it will harpoon with a dart attached to the tongue coiled within it. Its yellow stomach reaches out to feed all parts of the body.
    Russ Hopcroft/University of Alaska Fairbanks, Census of Marine Life
  • Census of Arctic and Antarctic Marine Life

    Elizabeth Siddon, a researcher with the University of Alaska Fairbanks, dives below the ice in the Canada Basin, tethered to a tender for her safety.
    Shawn Harper/University of Alaska Fairbanks
  • Census of Arctic and Antarctic Marine Life

    In this photo, a marble-sized jellyfish (calycopsis borchgrevinki) is shown. They are one of the more common hydromedusae encountered in Antarctic waters.
    Russ Hopcroft/University of Alaska Fairbanks, Census of Marine Life
  • Census of Arctic and Antarctic Marine Life

    A ghostlike sea angel (platybrachium antarcticum), seen here, goes through the deep Antarctic waters hunting the shelled pteropods (another type of snail) on which it feeds.
    Russ Hopcroft/University of Alaska Fairbanks, Census of Marine Life
  • Census of Arctic and Antarctic Marine Life

    This photo shows a chionodraco hamatus, one of the Antarctic's ice fish, which can withstand temperatures that freeze the blood of all other types of fish.
    Russ Hopcroft/University of Alaska Fairbanks, Census of Marine Life
  • Census of Arctic and Antarctic Marine Life

    The shell-less pteropod or swimming snail (clione limacina) seen here is found in both Arctic and Antarctic waters and preys exclusively on its fellow shelled pteropods.
    Russ Hopcroft/University of Alaska Fairbanks, Census of Marine Life
  • Census of Arctic and Antarctic Marine Life

    Census explorers (seen here) often brave dangerous conditions -- from icy decks and huge waves to encounters with polar bears -- to advance knowledge about marine life in the polar regions.
    Victoria Wadley/Australian Marine Science, Census of Marine Life
  • Census of Arctic and Antarctic Marine Life

    Bean-sized swimming snails (limacina helicina), seen here, live in both Arctic and Antarctic waters. They spin a mucus net off their paddlelike foot wings to trap algae and other small particles on which they feed.
    Russ Hopcroft/University of Alaska Fairbanks, Census of Marine Life
  • Census of Arctic and Antarctic Marine Life

    The copepod (gaetanus brevispinus) exists all over the world, but is most commonly collected in polar waters where its cold water habitat comes closer to the ocean's surface.
    Russ Hopcroft/University of Alaska Fairbanks, Census of Marine Life
  • Census of Arctic and Antarctic Marine Life

    Twenty years ago the shores of inner basins of the Arctic Hornsund fjord (Svalbard archipelago) were barren, as solid fast ice staying in average of 8-9 months per year scoured all the macroorganisms. Today, with the fast ice present no more than 4-5 months algae are climbing up the shore creating a new, rich habitat in the former desert.
    Marcin Gorski/ArcOD
  • Census of Marine Life

    Researchers have discovered hundreds of new species of animals, including more than 100 types of coral, in waters off two islands on the Great Barrier Reef and a reef off northwestern Australia. Colonial Salp Jellyfish captured in mid water column off Lizard Island.
    Courtesy Census of Marine Life/Gary Cranitch/Queensland Museum
  • Census of Marine Life

    Off of the Wassteri reef on Heron Island, researchers found the Ctenophore or comb jellyfish.
    Courtesy Census of Marine Life/Gary Cranitch/Queensland Museum
  • Census of Marine Life

    Researchers spent four years systematically investgating the waters surrounding the two islands. This Caulerpa cupressoides green alga was found off Heron Island.
    Courtesy Census of Marine Life/Gary Cranitch/Queensland Museum
  • Census of Marine Life

    For future exploration, the researchers left behind several dollhouse-like structures for sea life to colonize on the ocean floor. Creatures that move into the structures will be collected for study over the next three years. This is a sea slug, or Nudibranch, on coral.
    Courtesy Census of Marine Life/Gary Cranitch/Queensland Museum
  • Census of Marine Life

    Pohls Sea urchins were found off Lizard Island.
    Courtesy Census of Marine Life/Gary Cranitch/Queensland Museum
  • Census of Marine Life

    A Red Platoma alga specimen was collected off Heron Island.
    Courtesy Census of Marine Life/Gary Cranitch/Queensland Museum
  • Census of Marine Life

    For three weeks about 25 researchers combed the reef near Heron Island. Among their discoveries was the Nardoa rosea sea star as seen from the underside.
    Courtesy Census of Marine Life/Gary Cranitch/Queensland Museum
  • Census of Marine Life

    In addition to studying newly discovered coral, the scientists' studies also included seaweeds, lace corals and urchins. This is a sea urchin off Heron Island.
    Courtesy Census of Marine Life/Gary Cranitch/Queensland Museum
  • Census of Marine Life

    This green banded snapping shrimp was taken from dead coral off of Heron Island.
    Courtesy Census of Marine Life/Gary Cranitch/Queensland Museum
  • Census of Marine Life

    The expeditions were the first done in and around coral ecosystems. This is Dendronepthya soft coral from coral gardens near Lizard Island. Soft corals are also called octocorals for the eight tentacles that fringe each polyp.
    Courtesy Census of Marine Life/Gary Cranitch/Queensland Museum
  • Census of Marine Life

    A twisted nudibranch, Chromodoris elizabethina, on the reef face off Heron Island.
    Courtesy Census of Marine Life/Gary Cranitch/Queensland Museum
  • Census of Marine Life

    Ningaloo Reef appears to be the least biodiverse of the sites the researchers studied. Here a whale shark swims on Ningaloo Reef.
    Courtesy Census of Marine Life/Gary Cranitch/Queensland Museum
  • Census of Marine Life

    Researcher Neil Bruce of the Museum of Tropical Queensland studies specimens in lighted aquarium on Lizard Island Reef.
    Courtesy Census of Marine Life/Gary Cranitch/Queensland Museum
  • Census of Marine Life

    Rick Morris films soft corals at Libby's Lair on the north side of Heron Island.
    Courtesy Census of Marine Life/Gary Cranitch/Queensland Museum
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