Option five is highly controversial. No school administrator contacted for this report would endorse it. "They're worried about liability issues," said Nicoletti. "Let me be clear, this is not -- repeat -- not a first option. It also assumes that students know how to actively resist to save themselves, and most do not."
Still, it was that practice that ended the Springfield, Ore., school shootings in 1998. "Kip Kinkell ended his siege only when he was stopped. That was active resistance," said Nicoletti, while once again cautioning against it even as a last resort.
Finally, Nicoletti emphasized prevention. "Before blood is even drawn, students have a responsibility to report suspicious activity by fellow students."
He said most individuals will "broadcast" what they're going to do well in advance of actually taking aim and firing.
"Unfortunately, most students don't report these students because they are worried they will be accused of overreacting," said Nicoletti. "But when you see something or someone acting suspiciously or violently, share it, even though you don't want to be considered a snitch."
According to Nicoletti, one of the telltale signs of danger is multiple "troubling signs" exhibited by some students.
"Violence doesn't stand alone. By that, I mean potential shooters telegraph their violent tendencies more than once. Look at the plays Cho wrote. They were disturbing and filled with violent revenge," said Nicoletti. "That should have been a clue."