Attempting to straddle the fence on this issue, the leading pharmacists' association says conscience clauses are fine as long patients aren't entirely left out in the cold.
"The American Pharmacists Association supports the right of a pharmacist to excuse themselves from activity which they find objectionable," said Susan Winckler, the APA's vice president for policy and communications. "But the second part of that right to exercise a conscientious objection is that they establish a system or an alternative way for the patient to be able to access legally prescribed therapy."
The alternative could be a referral to another pharmacist or a separate pharmacy altogether.
But that isn't good enough — for either side.
"A person who is able to go to a pharmacy to obtain a medication is able to locate a pharmacy that can serve their needs," said Brauer, of Pharmacists for Life International. "They can call and determine if the pharmacy carries their medication. There is really no need for a referral. There are mail-order pharmacies, there's Federal Express. There's the ability to deliver things onto a person's doorstep."
NOW's O'Neill calls the referral process "completely unacceptable" and a humiliating experience for women. She suggests the pharmacist should be the one referred "to a different occupation."
When the APA's House of Delegates came to this policy position in 1998, it was "hotly debated," Winckler said. "The fact that either extreme doesn't agree with it may indeed show that in fact, it's the right approach."
The CVS pharmacist who refused to fill Lacey's prescription still has her job. Lacey had been taking her birth control pills for nine years — with pauses to have her two children — and filling her prescription at that CVS for a year.
As she was driving home from CVS after being denied, Lacey got angry. "It was not right to deny me my medication that was prescribed to my by my licensed doctor," she said. "I really couldn't believe that she had the right to withhold my medication from me."
Lacey contemplated taking her business to the local Eckerd Drugs store. But this week, CVS announced it had purchased roughly 1,200 Eckerd stores in Texas, Florida and several other Southern states. CVS says its policy is to dispense legally prescribed therapies to customers as quickly as possible, but it will not force pharmacists to do things that would violate their religious beliefs.
Eckerd, however, sided with the customer in a case involving a pharmacist at one of its Texas stores. In late January, Gene Herr — then a pharmacist at a Denton, Texas, Eckerd Drugs — declined to fill a prescription for a morning-after pill. It had been prescribed for a woman who had just been raped.
It was a "worst-case scenario," Herr told ABCNEWS. "I went in the back and prayed about it a little bit. I called my associate pastor, and asked him what he thought about it and basically he just confirmed what I was already thinking."
Herr went back to the counter and explained that if that if the rape victim had conceived, the morning-after pill "would take the child's life, and I can't fill it."
"Pharmacists aren't vending machines," said Herr. "We have morals, we are human beings as well, we have beliefs. I mean, everyone wants to live consistently with their own beliefs."
Herr paid a price for acting on those beliefs; Eckerd fired him within the week.
Herr has since found another job. Lacey has since found another pharmacy to fill her prescriptions. They are two Texas Christians with vastly different views of a pharmacists' obligation to his patient.