Behind high prison walls, the concept of safe sex may be as foreign as that of freedom.
But some say this situation must change, especially because studies suggest that the prevalence of HIV infection in U.S. prisons and jails is six to 10 times higher than that seen in the general free population.
Recently, the National Minority AIDS Council, an AIDS advocacy group, recommended that prisons curb the spread of the virus by distributing condoms to prisoners.
The idea is not a new one.
According to the not-for-profit organization Human Rights Watch, prisons in Mississippi and Vermont, and jails in New York, Philadelphia, Washington D.C., San Francisco and Los Angeles already distribute condoms to inmates.
Several countries, including Canada, Australia, and most countries in the EU, also distribute condoms to prisoners.
"Whether legal or not, sex between inmates is occurring, and we must do what we can to provide vehicles for responsible sexual behavior, including the use of condoms," said Eli Coleman, professor and director of the Program in Human Sexuality at the University of Minnesota Medical School.
"These measures should be adopted worldwide as a means of promoting safety in our prisons. This is sound public health policy," Coleman said.
Some prisons, however, are reluctant to provide condoms to prisoners.
"In our system, engaging in sex in prison or sodomy is a Class 1 misconduct," said Sheila Moore, deputy press secretary for the Pennsylvania Department of Corrections in Harrisburg, Pa. "It's against the rules. Passing out condoms in prisons is also a security issue. Things such as drugs can be smuggled in."
It is difficult to pin down an exact statistic on how many prisoners are having sex. Various studies have arrived at figures ranging from 2 percent to 30 percent.
But research also shows that prison sex is risky sex.
One study in 2002 estimated that about one-quarter of the U.S. population infected with HIV had spent some time each year in a prison or jail.
Hence, a certain number of prisoners who go in HIV negative come out HIV positive. Health experts say distributing condoms to these prisoners would be a wise approach to the problem.
Some say that distributing condoms in prisons and jails may also prevent taxpayers from eventually having to pay to care for HIV-infected inmates.
"If prisoners transmit [sexually transmitted infections] or HIV/AIDS to each other, the public will have to spend the money to take care of them," said Dr. June Reinisch, director emeritus of the Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender and Reproduction.
"Whether you are on the side of caring about their health or are against their having sexual interactions -- which we are unlikely to influence one way or another by providing condoms or not -- we may be saving the public millions of dollars in health-care costs for taking care of the sick prisoners," Reinisch said.
The pros and cons of distributing condoms in prison must be weighed before decisions are made.
"I think that this approach is worth a try," said Dr. Fred Berlin, associate professor of psychiatry at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. "The reality is that individuals do have sex in prison. However, good data should be maintained documenting both the perceived benefits, as well as any problems that might develop."