Health Minister Lukasz Szumowski said 17 recent measles cases in the Mazovia Province all resulted from parents failing to get their children vaccinated.
The Polish cases come as the World Health Organization has reported tens of thousands of measles cases across Europe.
At a news conference on Sunday, Szumowski and other health officials stressed that measles vaccinations are safe.
Measles is a highly contagious disease and WHO says it is one of the leading causes of death worldwide in young children. It's easily prevented with a vaccine.