State news agency SANA said Israeli warplanes launched the missiles while flying over Lebanon's airspace, and said all were shot down by Syrian air defenses before reaching their targets.
The Britain-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights, an opposition war monitor, said the airstrikes targeted the Shayrat and Dabaa air bases in the central province of Homs. It said the strikes were also aimed at targets in the southern region of Quneitra on the edge of the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights. It had no word on damage or casualties.
There was no immediate comment from Israel.
Last week, an Israeli drone fired a missile at a car in southern Syria, killing one person. The Observatory at the time said that the man targeted was an anti-Israel operative.
In recent years, Israel has repeatedly carried out airstrikes in Syria against targets belonging to Iran and its regional proxies. One airstrike last month killed two members of the Palestinian militant group Islamic Jihad, which is backed by Iran.