The rule changes:
FUEL TRAIN BRAKES: Citing high costs, Trump's administration rescinded a 2015 Department of Transportation rule requiring railroads to begin installing more advanced electronic brakes on trains hauling hazardous fuels.
Industry savings: $375 million-$554 million (2018-2037)
Impact: Additional derailments of tank cars. AP found the government understated potential impacts by as much as $117 million.
METHANE EMISSIONS: Administration wants to eliminate 2016 Environmental Protection Agency rule requiring energy companies to reduce flaring of methane, a potent greenhouse gas.
Industry savings: $380 million-$484 million (2019-2025)
Impacts: Emission increases of 380,000 tons of methane, 100,000 tons of volatile organic compounds, 3,800 tons of hazardous air pollutants; adverse health effects including premature deaths, heart attacks, and respiratory problems; potential reductions in visibility.
METHANE EMISSIONS: Administration largely eliminated Interior Department's 2016 "waste prevention rule" that required companies to reduce the flaring of methane on public and tribal lands.
Industry savings: $1.4 billion-$2.1 billion (2019-2028)
Impacts: Emission increases of 1.8 million tons of greenhouse gas methane; 800,000 tons of volatile organic compounds that can harm health; unspecified public health and welfare impacts.
CLEAN POWER PLAN: Administration is proposing replacement of EPA's 2015 rule that aimed to cut U.S. greenhouse gas emissions by focusing on carbon dioxide from coal-fired power plants. The changes are projected to increase annual coal production by 33 million-40 million tons by 2030.
Industry savings: $3.7 billion-$6.4 billion (2023-2037)
Impacts: Emissions increases of up to 61 million tons of carbon dioxide, 52,000 tons of sulfur oxides and 39,000 tons of nitrous oxides annually by 2030; health effects including up to 1,400 premature deaths, 750 non-fatal heart attacks in 2030; reductions in visibility; ecosystem effects.
COAL ASH DISPOSAL: Administration removed many mandates from 2015 EPA rule aimed at preventing hundreds of spills from toxic coal ash dumps over the next century.
Industry savings: $397 million-$605 million (100 years)
Impact: EPA says that, with other existing federal and state regulations, there will be no additional risks to human health and environment. Critics disagree.
FRACKING: Administration rescinded 2015 Interior Department rule that lowered the risk of water contamination from an oil and gas drilling technique called hydraulic fracturing, or "fracking."
Industry savings: $102 million-$339 million (2018-2027)
Impact: Increased risk to surface waters, groundwater supplies.
OFFSHORE DRILLING-SAFETY: Administration dropped requirements for third-party safety equipment inspections from a rule enacted after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.
Industry savings: $92 million-$131 million (2019-2028)
Impacts: Administration says the changes will have a negligible impact on safety and environmental protection; critics say it raises the risk of accidents.
OFFSHORE DRILLING-BLOWOUTS: Administration wants more flexibility in how companies meet safety and equipment standards in 2016 Interior rule requiring more stringent inspections of devices designed to prevent offshore oil spills.
Industry savings: $693 million-$946 million (2018-2027)
Impacts: Administration says the changes will not impact worker safety and environmental protection; critics say it raises the risk of accidents.
REFINERY SECTOR: At request of oil industry, administration gave companies more flexibility in reporting air pollution releases under 2015 EPA rule restricting toxic air pollution from refineries.
Industry savings: $89 million-$110 million (2019-2026)
Impacts: Administration says no appreciable emission increases expected; critics say companies can now delay reports of toxic chemical releases into the air, putting communities at risk.
MERCURY POLLUTION: Administration wants to eliminate 2016 EPA rule that determined it was "appropriate and necessary" to reduce power plant emissions of mercury. It says EPA should not have considered up to $90 billion in secondary benefits in reaching its decision.
Industry savings: uncertain; utilities have spent estimated $18 billion to date on compliance
VEHICLE FUEL EFFICIENCY: To limit a 2016 Department of Transportation proposal that called for more stringent fuel efficiency standards, the administration seeks to freeze them after 2020.
Industry savings: revenues on up to 79 billion gallons of additional fuel sales (for vehicles built through 2029)
Impacts: Emission increases of 961 million tons of carbon dioxide, 1.7 million tons of methane; administration says its proposal would prevent up to 1,000 highway deaths annually, a finding disputed by former EPA officials and outside experts.
NOTE: All weights are in short tons, not metric tons
SOURCES: Department of Transportation, Department of Interior, Environmental Protection Agency