The man, identified as 21-year-old Malik Steffon Neal, was arrested just before 5 a.m. Sunday, police said.
"Neal entered a restricted area without a valid ticket and ignored agents' along with Chicago police officers' commands to stop," the Chicago Police Department said in a statement. "Neal then struck several officers as they attempted to place him into custody."
The officers suffered non-life-threatening injuries and were transported to an area hospital, according to the statement.
Neal was taken into custody and charged accordingly, police said, without specifying what charges he faces.
Video posted to social media shows Neal being removed from the airport by several law enforcement officers.