"The opinion of this so-called judge, which essentially takes law-enforcement away from our country, is ridiculous and will be overturned!," the president tweeted.
His post was among a flurry of tweets pushing back on the decision Friday by U.S. District Judge James L. Robart in Seattle, Washington.
"When a country is no longer able to say who can, and who cannot, come in & out, especially for reasons of safety & security - big trouble! ... Interesting that certain Middle-Eastern countries agree with the ban. They know if certain people are allowed in it's death & destruction!," Trump posted.
Robart issued a nationwide restraining order halting key parts of the president's executive action that temporarily bars some immigrants and refugees from seven predominantly Muslim countries.
Robart was nominated to the federal bench by President George W. Bush and confirmed by the Senate in a 99-0 in June 2004, and was praised during his hearing by Republican Sen. Orin Hatch of Utah for representing refugees.
Senate Minority leader Charles Schumer of New York also used Twitter to chastise the president for criticizing a judge.
"POTUS's attack on Judge Robart shows a disdain for an ind. judiciary that doesn't bend to his wishes & lack of respect for the Constitution," Schumer wrote, adding that Trump's remarks "raise the bar higher" for consideration of the president's nomination of Judge Neil Gorsuch to the U.S Supreme Court.
"Pres Trump's actions raise the bar higher for his SCOTUS nom. Gorsuch's ability to be an ind. check will be front & center in this process," Schumer wrote.
Trump posted again on Twitter after a golf outing at his Mar-a-Lago resort in Florida. Returning to the subject of the judge's order, the president said it could mean "anyone, even with bad intentions, can come into the U.S."
The president's tweet did not note the already extensive vetting system in place for foreign nationals entering the U.S. or that visas are not extended to everyone who requests them.
And despite Trump administration officials telling reporters earlier in the week that the executive order is "not a travel ban," the president himself used this term.
The president then expanded his attack, saying Judge Robart's action could mean "many very bad and dangerous people may be pouring into our country."
The White House despite repeated requests has not been able to cite examples of terror attacks in the U.S. carried out by individuals from the seven countries listed in the ban.
Trump's criticism of Judge Robart is not the first time he has attacked a member of the federal judiciary.
As a candidate, Trump repeatedly blasted Judge Gonzalo Curiel, who presided over one of the cases against Trump University and who last summer ordered a release of documents related to that case.
Trump told The Wall Street Journal in relation to that order that Curiel has "an absolute conflict" of interest regarding the case because "of Mexican heritage."
Curiel, who was born in Indiana, was appointed to the Superior Court of San Diego by a Republican governor of California, Arnold Schwarzenegger, and then appointed to the federal court by President Barack Obama.
ABC News' Meghan Keneally and Shushannah Walshe contributed to this report.