"FEMA has many more resources at its disposal than the state of Texas," said Smilowitz. "Instead of testing it out to see if the state can get it right, this is something FEMA should do."
That's why he launched a campaign that calls on FEMA to reverse its policy and once again assume responsibility of ice delivery and planning.
"We're not saying FEMA's done nothing right, but for ice policy they get an F," said Smilowitz, warning that the situation is only going to get worse. "There's been literally no solution for these individuals and, as time continues, there will be even more burdens on the 9-1-1 system because basic self-maintenance will be impossible."
In North Carolina, Bob Ronne hopes that a solution will come soon. He's right in the middle of Hurricane Alley, he says, and it's been an active season.
Sitting in his wheelchair, which he has been confined to since a car accident left him paralyzed in 1986, Ronne goes through the seven medications he depends on daily for his spinal cord injury. When asked how he would be affected after a disaster if he didn't have ice to keep those medicines safe, Ronne has trouble finding words.
"It's something I don't want to imagine," he said eventually.
DAP's hotline is open for calls and to receive reports of gaps in disaster relief and response services at 866-9-TIP-DAP.