Jason Healey, director of the Cyber Statecraft Initiative at the Atlantic Council, said later in the day that the discovery of Stuxnet -- the first worm clearly authored by a nation-state to attack another nation-state -- was one of the most significant moments in the relatively short history of cyber warfare.
In his keynote address just before Clark's talk, Black Hat founder Jeff Moss briefly discussed the recent cyber attacks aimed at Wall Street -- unprecedented floods of traffic that U.S. officials have blamed on Iran, even if the hackers deny the connection.
During a break in the talks the presenters and audience members mixed at a lunch on the terrace of the Emirates Palace Hotel, where they chatted about what the cyber world will look like in the coming years and the challenges men that them would likely face.
The terrace had a striking view of nearby white sand beaches and the Arabian Gulf beyond them. Just a few miles farther, over the horizon, lay Iran.