The problem with the Aztek was simply that it was ugly. Really ugly. This was not the type of car anybody would have wanted to be seen driving around the neighborhood in.
Perhaps the most ambitious effort of recent times to reinvent an auto company came from General Motors and its engineering marvel, the EV1. This electric vehicle promised to revolutionize the market, the same way GM hopes to again today with the Volt, more than a decade after the EV1's 1997 debut.
The car came out of California's zero-emissions-vehicle mandate and ran completely on electricity. It had all the promise of saving the planet from excess greenhouse gases.
Then reality struck. The battery didn't last long enough, the car was tiny and not powerful enough for American drivers' tastes.
But the real problem was cost. GM couldn't find an affordable way to manufacture the car. The company went from being a leader in the electric car business to being known as the company that killed off the electric car.
"Instead of a positive in environmentalists' eyes, it became a major black eye for General Motors," Nerad said.
For the AMC Pacer, the problem wasn't cost but bad design. Sure, it was a bit dorky looking, but it was also impractical, with more glass than you could ever imagine on a car.
"This was like a fishbowl on wheels," Phillippi said. "It had extraordinary issues with the inability of an air conditioning system to keep up with the sun."
Ford stuck gold in 1986 with the Taurus. The car was more aerodynamic than most cars of that generation and had rounded edges that were practically unheard of back then.
"It was a dramatic departure from everything else on the road at the time," Phillippi said. "It was the car that saved Ford."
The other automakers quickly scrambled to redesign their cars with similarly rounded edges.
Ford hit success again in 1990 with the introduction of the Explorer. The mass-produced SUV led the way for an influx of the cars and cleared the path for larger SUVs, including Chevrolet's Suburban and Tahoe.
High gas prices and a tightening of consumer credit just recently drove people away from the profitable SUVs and helped lead to Ford's current problems. The company is now trying to reinvent itself with the Flex, a crossover vehicle whose success or failure has yet to be determined.
The Volt might be a great car, but many people have doubts it can save GM.
President Obama's administration raised doubts about the Volt in its review of GM's viability plan. The report said that GM earns a large share of its profits from high-margin trucks and SUVs, which are vulnerable to a continuing shift in consumer preference to smaller vehicles.
"Additionally, while the Chevy Volt holds promise, it will likely be too expensive to be commercially successful in the short term," Obama's team wrote.