Migraine Drug May Treat Alcoholism, Too

Topiramate, a drug currently used to treat migraines and seizures, may also help those with alcohol dependence.

But whether it will be used in clinical practice is another question.

A new study appearing in the current issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association finds that the drug, commonly known by the brand name Topamax, can reduce alcohol dependence and the number of days alcoholics drink heavily.

However, drugs like topiramate are not widely prescribed, and the company that manufactures Topamax, Ortho-McNeil Neurologics Inc., says it does not plan to market the drug as a treatment for alcoholism.

Still, some hope that the finding may help some who struggle with alcohol dependence.

"I think it offers a new hope for patients," says lead study author Dr. Bankole Johnson, chairman of the department of psychiatric medicine at the University of Virginia Health System. "It offers a hope that patients can get immediate treatment, and it reinforces the fact that alcoholism is a brain disorder and can be treated with medications."

Migraine Drug a Big Headache

However, getting a drug approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration is no easy task; the cost and time involved are enormous.

"The regulatory requirements and documentation are very time consuming," says Dr. James Garbutt, a professor of psychiatry at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. "The detail is mind-boggling, and it costs a fortune, many millions of dollars, to prove and confirm the data, compile it and present it to the FDA."

Additionally, the company says that Topamax will not be marketed for alcohol dependence, because its researchers were unable to alleviate the side effects associated with the drug. The company had hoped, for example, that it could develop a pill to release the drug slowly into the blood, thereby reducing such side effects as difficulty concentrating, prickling of the skin and sleepiness.

"We were developing a controlled release formulation to achieve more even blood levels of Topamax in hopes of improving the side effects," says Joseph Hulihan, vice president of medical affairs at Ortho-McNeil Janssen Scientific Affairs. "However, when the controlled release formulation did not improve side effects, we didn't move forward with it, and we didn't move forward with our other initiatives either, such as marketing it as a treatment for alcohol dependence."

An Off-Label Option?

But since the drug has already been approved for treatment of migraines and seizures, physicians can prescribe it as an off-label drug if additional studies confirm the findings.

Ortho-McNeil told ABCNEWS.com that it only promotes Topamax for its approved uses and has distanced itself from the idea of off-label scripts for the pill.

Still, doctors may look to it as an off-label alcoholism treatment option.

"The company may not go through all the paperwork and expense to market the drug, but physicians are free to prescribe it, because it has already been approved by the FDA," explains Garbutt.

And many doctors may welcome an additional tool against alcoholism — a condition characterized by an obsession with alcohol and an inability to control drinking habits. People who suffer from it often deny they have a drinking problem, which makes treatment difficult.

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