Manufacturers often refused to reveal the ingredients in their products, noting that ingredients are trade secrets, Gerwig says. "Even given our enormous size and buying power, we have had relatively little power getting this information," she says. "It really puts the burden on the user."
That's why Kaiser, the AMA and others support a petition, filed by a coalition of medical groups called Health Care Without Harm, asking the Food and Drug Administration to require manufacturers to label plastics that could expose patients to DEHP. Although the FDA rejected the group's petitions in 1999 and 2001, the agency did advise hospitals in 2002 to find alternatives to DEHP, especially for the most vulnerable patients: male newborns, pregnant women carrying boys and boys near puberty.
Concern about DEHP — which belongs to a class of chemicals called phthalates — has grown steadily since. Government studies have found the chemical in about 80% of Americans tested.
In December, the government's highly respected National Toxicology Program concluded there is "serious" concern — its highest level — that DEHP could harm critically ill baby boys. The program also found reason for "concern" — its second-highest level — in boys younger than 12 months and those born to pregnant women undergoing certain medical treatments.
Marian Stanley of the American Chemistry Council describes those risks as "theoretical," because of the scarcity of human studies. She said the federal report was "erring on the precautionary side, because you can't really get exposure information from these tiny infants."
Researchers say that the few available human studies add to worries about DEHP.
A 2005 study in Environmental Health Perspectives found that more intensive medical care increased the amount of DEHP in the bodies of newborn boys.
In another study that year, Shanna Swan of the University of Rochester School of Medicine found differences in the reproductive organs of boys whose mothers were exposed to higher levels of several phthalates. More highly exposed boys had a shorter distance between their anus and the base of their penis, a measurement that is usually longer in boys than in girls. Boys in whom this distance was shorter were also more likely to have incompletely descended testes.
The FDA hasn't yet answered the petition on DEHP, filed in late July. But the agency is working with international agencies to assess DEHP's risks and find a safe exposure level for hospitalized patients, says spokeswoman Karen Riley. That will help the FDA decide on labeling or further recommendations.
Some manufacturers say they're already seeing a boom in DEHP-free goods. B. Braun Medical Inc., a Pennsylvania-based manufacturer, is even building a new facility to help keep up with demand. With a burgeoning range of consumers choices, Allen Blakey, a spokesman for a trade group called the Vinyl Institute, says there's no need for FDA labeling.
But others are forging ahead. Catholic Healthcare West, a network of 40 hospitals in California, Arizona and Nevada, is making many environmental improvements, says Sister Mary Ellen Leciejewski, ecology program coordinator. Beyond using only DEHP-free IV bags and tubing, the network has eliminated most mercury and hopes to replace vinyl-backed carpeting.