How do you design a simple, elegant solution that can change the world?
Not easily, says Dr. Jim Patell, the professor whose graduate course "Entrepreneurial Design for Extreme Affordability" inspired students to create the Embrace Infant Warmer featured in "Be the Change: Save a Life."
Patell is teaching a new generation of entrepreneurs at Stanford Business School how to design and sell innovative, affordable products for the world's poor that can not only save lives but make money -- for the inventors as well as their partners in the developing world.
Ninety percent of the world's products and resources are designed for 10 percent of the world's population, but Patell works with his classes to turn these numbers on their head, designing innovative products that help solve common problems for people in the developing world.
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"Most people start with technology and try to find a problem," says Patell. "We start with a problem and then try to find technology that can fix it."
Working out of Stanford's Institute of Design, Patell has developed several fundamental building blocks for success, among them:
International Partners: Every year, Patell identifies several international partners, such as hospitals, nongovernmental organizations or start-ups in the developing world. In the past seven years, students have conducted 60 projects with 15 partner organizations in 10 countries on projects that range from irrigation systems to solar-rechargeable lights to incubators for low- birth-weight infants. Many of the projects they develop are turned over to the partners.
Teamwork: The students are assigned to teams, with two teams for every partner. Each team spends time with the partner -- traveling to the country, gaining understanding of their needs and frustrations, and collaboratively trying to develop product prototypes and implementation plans that fit the specific culture, its aspirations and constraints.
Empathy: "We start from need, from empathy," says Patell. In the course description he writes: "We believe in listening to the needs the poor tell us about, not assuming we know best. We believe in products and services designed for specific cultural contexts, not just Western hand-me-downs. And we believe that careful attention to design can create innovative -- and extremely affordable -- solutions to the problems of the other 90 percent." In other words: treat the poor as customers, not charity recipients.
The Duct Tape Theory: If you see someone using duct tape and string and paperclips as a "work around" -- that signals an opportunity to make a difference. Patell tells his students: "Ask them: what frustrates you? What are you using duct tape for?" "Often people have gotten so used to the duct tape they don't even remember that it is fixing a problem," he says.