At 15 years old, Bernie Carducci was shy.
Most social situations, no matter how casual, would result in sweaty palms and butterflies in his stomach. Conversations were difficult. Approaching a girl for a date was completely out of the question.
Though many may be able to relate to these awkward experiences of youth, for some the problem of serious shyness persists into adulthood -- leading to difficulties in getting a job, acquiring friends or getting a date.
Rather than staying in his shell, Carducci, in his own words, "made shyness a personal and professional interest." He went on to write books on shyness and help numerous individuals with their social problems.
Today, he is the director of the Shyness Research Institute at Indiana University Southeastern, an institute he founded in 1997.
"My goal is to create not only an understanding but also an appreciation for shyness," he said. "The ultimate goal is to become successfully shy."
But an institute for shyness?
While some may question the necessity of such an organization, some of Carducci's research delves into situations in which shyness can pose real dangers to society as a whole.
At the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association earlier this month in San Francisco, Carducci presented research showing that a certain type of shyness -- termed "cynical shyness" is a characteristic common to many of those who commit high school shootings.
"The cynically shy represent a small, select group of shy individuals who make the effort to move towards others but are rejected by them," Carducci states in the article.
"For such individuals, this rejection can manifest itself in the development of a sense of social disconnection and, more importantly, feelings of anger, which can result in a loss of empathy for and the dehumanization of others."
In the study, eight male high school shooters, including the two students responsible for the attack at Columbine, were analyzed based on personal and social factors noted in newspapers and the FBI document titled "The School Shooter: A Threat Assessment Perspective."
The researchers examined 10 different characteristics of cynical shyness and found that the school shooters fit this profile.
Not all researchers felt that the findings of the study could necessarily be used yet to weed potential school shooters out from the crowd. Joseph Gasper, a sociologist at Johns Hopkins University, said he is "cautious about checklist approaches" such as those used in this study.
He adds that there may be a handful of people that will fit this profile, but only a rare few commit school shootings. There is concern that students "may get stigmatized" based on this data, he said.
Dr. Gary Slutkin, professor at the School of Public Health at the University of Illinois-Chicago and executive director of Ceasefire Chicago, a group which works to eliminate gang violence, said, "What is missing from the data is how prevalent these characteristics are among teenagers."
But the research could be a first step toward identifying cynically shy individuals before such acts of violence become reality.
Of course, there are many types of shyness, most of which pose more danger to the lives of individuals than those of the rest of society.
Carducci points out that there exists a spectrum of shy behaviors.