Gorsuch, 49, who served as a federal judge on the 10th Circuit Court of Appeals in Denver, was nominated to the bench by President Trump in January.
Gorsuch's confirmation marks the end to a bitter, partisan battle that began within hours after the sudden death of Justice Antonin Scalia on Feb. 13, 2016.
After Trump won the election, he nominated Gorsuch. Republicans praised the Denver judge as highly qualified and a fine replacement for Scalia, a conservative icon.
But many Democrats argued that Gorsuch's record was too conservative and that he failed to answer key questions about his judicial record during his Senate hearing last month. Democrats were still upset over Republicans' refusal to bring Garland's nomination up for a vote.
McConnell celebrated the confirmation of Gorsuch today, calling it "a proud day."
On the Senate floor following the vote, the majority leader expressed thanks President Trump as "the man who made this moment possible by sending us this outstanding nominee."
"I want to congratulate Judge Gorsuch on this significant achievement. We look forward to observing his good work in the years to come," McConnell said. "The confirmation process was certainly a significant undertaking."
Once Gorsuch is sworn in, the Supreme Court will have a conservative majority.
ABC News' Ali Rogin contributed to this report.