Hispanic youth used to represent a disproportionately small number of all the children in foster care. Unfortunately, they're catching up.
The Chronicle of Social Change, a site that covers juvenile justice and child welfare, points out that the longer Latino families are in the United States, the closer they get to everything from incarceration to alcoholism and divorce. This, in part, leads to more Latino kids in the foster care system.
In 1995, 10 percent of Latino children in the United States had substantiated cases of abuse and neglect. By 2010, that share had jumped to 21.4 percent, even though they made up just 16 percent of the country's total population.
Heavily Latino Los Angeles provides a pretty clear picture of the reasons for this increase.
In 2000, 39 percent of the kids under Los Angeles County Department of Children and Family Services supervision were Latino, meaning they made up 21,350 of the 54,651 kids. This is in a county where nearly half the population was Latino at the time.
In February 2013, there were 20,654 Latino kids in the system. The decrease might sound good, but it's only part of the truth. The number of total kids in foster care dropped dramatically, to 35,109. That means Latino kids made up a much larger share, 59 percent, of kids in the care of the Los Angeles County DCFS, while Latinos still made up about half the county's population.
Dr. David Hayes-Bautista, a professor at the Center for the Study of Latino Health and Culture at the University of California, Los Angeles, said it's important to note that Latinos are a young population though, so while they make up only about half the population of Los Angeles County, they make up close to two-thirds of children in the county.
Even so, there's been a jump in the percentage of children in the foster care system who are Latino.
"The increase of Latino children in the child welfare system is likely due in part to a growing population of third generation Latino children, who are at greater risk of child welfare involvement than their first and second generation counterparts," University of Illinois at Chicago researcher Alan Dettlaff told the Chronicle.
In other words, Americanization isn't necessarily a good thing.
Consider a 2007 report from the Urban Institute.
"Latino immigrant children, most of them Mexican, made up one percent of Texas' foster care population, but seven percent of the total population. The children of immigrants (second generation) represented eight percent of the foster care population and accounted for 20 percent of the total child population in Texas. Latino children born to Americans represented 33 percent of the foster care population while representing only 22 percent of Texas' overall child population. By the third generation Latino children had gone from a marked under representation to steep overrepresentation."
The Chronicle looks at a number of factors, from drug abuse to divorce, to poverty, to incarceration, to a dearth of mental health services. Interestingly, later generations are likely to see some economic and educational gains, but they still fall prey to these other factors.
But why do the families fall apart? Why are divorce and incarceration rates higher?