Sheen, 45, star of the hit comedy "Two and a Half Men," filed for divorce Monday in Los Angeles, citing irreconcilable differences.
The couple was married in May 2008 and has 1-year-old twin boys together. Sheen is petitioning for joint custody.
According to the court documents, Sheen did not know the "extent of [his] assets and obligations," and the couple has a pre-nuptial agreement.
The Web site TMZ.com obtained a previous property settlement the couple signed in May in which Sheen agreed to pay Mueller $55,000 a month in child support. He also agreed to pay her $1 million to keep the couple's home and an additional lump sum payment of $757,689.70.
In August, Sheen pleaded guilty to misdemeanor third-degree assault after pulling a knife on his wife on Christmas Day 2009.
In the new documents, Sheen listed the couple's separation date as the day of the fight.
Last week, Sheen was hospitalized after security at the Plaza Hotel was called to the actor's room because he was acting erratically.
Sheen and his second wife, Denise Richards, and their two children, all were staying at the hotel, though Sheen was in a separate room.
Also reportedly in Sheen's room was porn actress Christina Walsh.
Sheen's publicist has said the actor was not drunk but was suffering an allergy to medicine.