Elba received the Officer of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire (OBE) award from Prince William.
The official Twitter account for the royal family tweeted: ".@idriselba looking forward to welcoming you and all of today's recipients to Buckingham Palace #Investiture."
The "Luther" star, who was accompanied by his mother at the ceremony, tweeted that he was "flying the East End flag at Buckingham Palace," a reference to his old neighborhood.
Elba, 43, made history in January when he became the first male actor to take home two Screen Actors Guild awards in one night.