Surgical implantation of artificial discs between patients' veterbraes to relieve debilitating back pain is a relatively new technique that was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in October 2004.
The principle doctors who conducted the clinical studies, as well as the hospitals where they currently practice are listed below.
• Scott Blumenthal, MD and Richard Guyer, MD, Texas Back Institute, Dallas
• Paul McAfee, MD, St. Joseph's, Towson, Md.
• Richard Holt, MD, Jewish Hospital Louisville, Ky.
• Robert Gaines Jr., MD, Columbia Regional Hospital, Columbia, Mo.
• Rolando Garcia, MD, Aventura Medical Center, Aventura, Fla.
• Jorge Isaza, MD, Our Lady of the Lake, Baton Rouge, La.
• Doug Wong, MD, St. Anthony's Hospital, Golden, Colo.
• Bradford Mullin, MD, Mt. Carmel East, Columbus, Ohio
• Michael McNamara, MD, The Bone & Joint Clinic, Franklin, Tenn.
• James Maxwell, MD, Scottsdale Memorial Hospital, Scottsdale, Ariz.
• Fabien Bitan, MD, Lenox Hill, New York
• Fred Geisler, MD and Noam Stadlin, MD, Aurora Medical Center, Chicago
• Robert Watkins, MD, Center for Orthopaedic Spinal Surgery, Los Angeles
• John Regan, MD, Century City, Los Angeles
• Andy Cappuccino, MD, Lockport Memorial Hospital, Lockport, N.Y.
• Robert Banco, MD, New England Baptist, Boston