He was publicly very unhappy with Russian athletes' disappointing performance at the Winter Olympic Games in Vancouver.
Russia typically dominates at the Winter games, but took just 15 medals -- three of them gold -- in Vancouver, marking the nation's worst-ever medal count for a Winter Olympics.
Medvedev called for the resignation of several of his country's sports officials.
"I didn't have an Olympic Games, I didn't take part in them, but they were a tough games for our country, yes, because for the first time we had a steep decline in the medal count.
"This is not a national disaster, but we have to take a lesson from it," he said. "We should prepare better next time. Because when you host the Olympics you are counting on many medals."
The next Winter Olympic Games will be held in Sochi, Russia, in 2014.