SUNDAY, Dec. 27 (HealthDay News) -- Though a growing percentage of American moms start their infants on human milk, relatively few continue breast-feeding for the baby's first six months of life, let alone an entire year.
Why not stick it out longer? Numerous obstacles can prove difficult for new moms, but California researchers say they found that returning to work soon after giving birth presents a major barrier to successful breast-feeding.
"What we saw is if women take very short maternity leaves, of six weeks or less, they run more than a three times higher risk of quitting breast-feeding compared to those still at home who haven't returned to work," said Sylvia Guendelman, a professor who chairs the maternal and child health program at the University of California, Berkeley, School of Public Health.
Their study, published earlier this year in Pediatrics, was part of a larger analysis called "Juggling Work and Life During Pregnancy," funded by the U.S. government's Maternal and Child Health Bureau.
The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that women breast-feed exclusively for six months and continue breast-feeding for at least an infant's first year of life. Exclusive breast-feeding -- meaning no water, juice, formula or foods -- has been shown to improve protection against many diseases, including bacterial meningitis, diarrhea and ear infections, the academy says.
In the first half of the decade, the number of breast-fed infants increased somewhat, from 71 percent in 2000 to 74 percent by the end of 2006, according to a report from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
But those figures doesn't tell the whole story.
"Initiation of breast-feeding, although it is one measure, doesn't mean much," Guendelman said. "You can put your baby to the breast for two times and say, 'Well, I tried it and I didn't like it,' or, 'I didn't succeed,'" she said. "But what you really want to look at is, of women who initiate, how many breast-fed successfully for at least six months?"
On that score, the United States has made little progress. Of infants born in 2006, 43 percent were breast-feeding at 6 months and 23 percent at 12 months. Just 14 percent, however, had been exclusively breast-fed for six months.
The numbers fall short of national objectives for breast-feeding. Healthy People 2010, the government's health promotion and disease prevention agenda, seeks to boost the number of breast-feeding women to 75 percent by 2010. The six-month and one-year targets are 50 percent and 25 percent, respectively.
Unlike other industrialized counties, the United States does not have a national maternity leave policy.
To find out whether maternity leave makes a difference for breast-feeding success, Guendelman and her team examined data from 770 full-time working women in Southern California.
Full-time workers with short postpartum maternity leaves were more likely to quit breast-feeding early. Those at highest risk were women in non-managerial and inflexible positions and women with higher stress levels.