Latest Advance in the Treatment of Diabetes: An Artificial Pancreas

To live with diabetes, to live like 14-year-old Sarah Carlow of Cheshire, Conn., is to live in a series of never-ending calculations.

"I test my blood sugar on average maybe ten or more times a day," she says. "I check it before breakfast, lunch and dinner. You have to check your blood sugars while you're playing sports. I also have to count carbohydrates."

Sarah must count the carbohydrates in every food or drink she consumes, adjusting how much insulin to give herself.

But recently, for a few precious days, Sarah was able to forgo all of that, as she tested an experimental artificial pancreas which researchers believe can help diabetes patients automatically monitor their insulin levels. Sarah is one of about 75 diabetes patients across the U.S. in clinical trials for the procedure.

"It's not only monitoring the blood sugars, but giving the appropriate amount of insulin every minute to control those sugars," said Dr. Stuart Weinzimer, of Yale-New Haven Hospital in Connecticut.

Diabetes is a disease in which the body does not produce or properly use insulin, a hormone that is needed to convert sugar, starches and other food into energy needed for daily life.

There are 23.6 million children and adults in the United States, or 7.8 percent of the population, who have diabetes, according to the American Diabetes Association.

An estimated 4.3 million Americans need to monitor their blood sugars and inject themselves with insulin at least several times a day. But could new technology do all that for them?

It is the logical next step, say doctors. Diabetic patients already have continuous sensors that monitor sugar levels in the body. And they have pumps that dispense insulin. Now, researchers have figured out how to link the two.

"The sensor, just under the skin, sends a signal to the transmitter. It goes to a so-called control box, which tells the pump how much insulin to release.

Sarah says she doesn't feel a thing while this occurs. "No. Not at all. It's an amazing thing," she said.

No matter how much Sarah exercised or how much she ate -- lunch, dinner, snacks -- the artificial pancreas made all the necessary adjustments.

Preliminary results suggest the artificial pancreas can control blood sugar much better than patients can do on their own.

And while there are still several more years of testing -- researchers continue to make the technology smaller and more precise -- Sarah now dreams about one day living with her own artificial pancreas.

She's "very eager ... It would be amazing. Not having the every day, every minute, every hour hassle of worrying about my blood sugars," she said.

"If this comes into play, I can live a life like I did before, which is awesome."

Artificial Pancreas Project: Participating Medical Centers

Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation International

120 Wall Street New York, NY 10005 Phone: 1-800-533-CURE (2873) Fax: (212) 785-9595 E-mail: info@jdrf.org JDRF Artificial Pancreas Web site: www.jdrf.org/artificialpancreas

JDRF Funded Artificial Pancreas Consortium

Stanford School of Medicine

Division of Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes

Room G-313 Medical Center

300 Pasteur Drive, Stanford, CA 94305

Phone: (650) 723-5791

Fax: (650) 725-8375

http://dped.stanford.edu/apc/

Artificial Pancreas Center

Yale University School of Medicine Yale Pediatrics P.O. Box 208064 New Haven, CT 06520 (203) 785-4638 http://www.med.yale.edu/pediat/endocrin/research.html Yale University School of Medicine

Sansum Diabetes Research Institute 2219 Bath Street Santa Barbara, CA 93105 Phone: (805) 682-7638 Fax: (805) 682-3332 Email: info@sansum.org http://www.sansum.org/ Sansum Diabetes Research Institute

Barbara Davis Center for Childhood Diabetes Barbara Davis Center P.O. Box 6511 Aurora, CO 80045 Phone: (303) 724-2323 Fax: (303) 724-6779 http://www.barbaradaviscenter.org/ Barbara Davis Center for Childhood Diabetes

Jaeb Center for Health Research 15310 Amberly Drive, Suite 350 Tampa, FL 33647 Phone: (813) 975-8690 Fax: (813) 975-8761 E-mail: info@jaeb.org http://www.jaeb.org/ Jaeb Center for Health Research

University of Virginia Health System UVa Health System 1215 Lee Street Charlottesville, VA 22908 Phone: (434) 924-0211 www.healthsystem.virginia.edu University of Virginia Health System

The University of Cambridge Department of Medicine Level 5, Addenbrooke's Hospital (Box 157) Hills Road Cambridge CB2 2QQ Phone: +44 (0) 1223 336844 Fax: +44 (0) 1223 336846 E-mail: information@cambridge.org http://www.med.cam.ac.uk/html/div/diabetes.html The University of Cambridge

Boston University College of Engineering 44 Cummington Street Boston, MA 02215 Phone: (617)353-2805 Fax: (617) 353-6766 http://www.bu.edu/dbin/bme/

JDRF Continuous Glucose Sensor Trial

Stanford School of Medicine Division of Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes Room G-313 Medical Center 300 Pasteur Drive, Stanford, CA 94305 Phone: (650) 723-5791 Fax: (650) 725-8375 http://dped.stanford.edu/apc/ Artificial Pancreas Center

Yale University School of Medicine Yale Pediatrics P.O. Box 208064 New Haven, CT 06520 Phone: (203) 785-4638 http://www.med.yale.edu/pediat/endocrin/research.html Yale University School of Medicine

University of Washington Diabetes Research & Endocrinology Center Box 358285 Seattle, WA 98109 Phone: 206 764-2688 Fax: 206 764-2693 E-mail: derc@u.washington.edu http://depts.washington.edu/diabetes/ University of Washington

Kaiser Permanente Southern California 100 S. Los Robles, 2nd Floor Pasadena, CA 91101 Phone: N/A Fax: N/A E-mail: N/A https://www.kaiserpermanente.org/ Kaiser Permanente Southern California

University of Colorado Barbara Davis Center P.O. Box 6511 Aurora, CO 80045 Phone: (303) 724-2323 Fax: (303) 724-6779 http://www.barbaradaviscenter.org/ Barbara Davis Center for Childhood Diabetes

University of Iowa University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics 200 Hawkins Drive Iowa City, Iowa 52242 Phone: (800) 777-8442 http://www.int-med.uiowa.edu/Divisions/Endocrine/Default.html University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics

Nemours Children's Clinic – Jacksonville P.O. Box 5720 Jacksonville, FL 32247 Phone: (904) 390-3600 Fax: (904) 390-3699 http://www.nemours.org/research/biomedical/trial/fl/diabetes-one.html Nemours Children's Clinic

Atlanta Diabetes Association 100 Edgewood Ave NE # 1004 Atlanta, GA 30303 Phone: (404) 527-7150 E-mail: diabetes@diabetesatlanta.org www.diabetesatlanta.org Atlanta Diabetes Association

Joslin Diabetes Center One Joslin Place Boston, MA 02215 Phone: (800) JOSLIN-1 E-mail: N/A http://www.joslinresearch.org/pinet/ClinicalDetail.asp?clinicalSectionID=1 Joslin Diabetes

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