Microsoft founder Bill Gates famously declared last year that U.S. immigration policy should have "an exception for smart people."
And now with immigration reform poised to possibly be the next political hot button issue, a growing chorus of people is saying just that. They're calling on lawmakers to address what they see as a growing economic problem -- the flight of highly skilled immigrants from the United States.
It's a trend that not only hurts the U.S. economy but also stifles entrepreneurship and job growth, proponents argue.
"Good-paying jobs don't come from bailouts. They come from start-ups," journalist Tom Friedman wrote in an op-ed earlier this month. "And where do start-ups come from? They come from smart, creative, inspired risk-takers. How do we get more of those? There are only two ways: grow more by improving our schools or import more by recruiting talented immigrants."
Many large U.S. companies are the brainchild of foreign-born entrepreneurs -- think Yahoo, co-founded by Chinese-American Jerry Yang; eBay, created by French-born Iranian Pierre Omidyar; and Google, co-founded by Russian-American Sergey Brin.
Immigrants across the United States own 12.5 percent of all businesses, both big and small. In the technology and engineering fields, nearly a quarter of all businesses are founded by immigrants and they account for a significant chunk of jobs.
Many of these entrepreneurs came to the United States as students and stayed. But now, much of this labor force is eyeing returning to their home countries because of better opportunities there and visa constraints in the United States.
A report conducted last year found that more foreign students than in the past wanted to return to their home countries after completing their education, worried about their visas and job opportunities.
"We are suffering a massive reverse brain drain," said Vivek Wadhwa, a visiting scholar at Berkeley University and a senior research associate with the Labor and Worklife Program at Harvard Law School, who co-authored the report. "The best and the brightest don't see America as the best land of opportunity. They see equal or better opportunities back home."
Another report by the Technology Policy Institute in 2009 found that in the absence of green card and H1B visa constraints, roughly 182,000 foreign graduates of U.S. colleges and universities in science, technology, engineering and math would have remained in the country.
H1B visas are temporary work visas that allow foreign workers to remain in the United States for six years. The study found that these workers would have earned roughly $13.6 billion in 2008, raised the gross domestic product by that amount and would have contributed $2.7 billion to $3.6 billion to the economy.
"Highly skilled immigrants contribute very strongly to economic activity and economic growth in particular in the innovation sectors," said senior fellow Arlene Holen, who directed the project.
But because it's getting harder for this group of immigrants to stay in the United States legally, she said, "a lot of them come here and take higher education and then they leave. We don't let them stay. It's kind of a shooting yourself in the foot scenario."