Rev. Joseph Lowery remembers when the 1960s South was burning with racism -- the day a white man walked up to him and stubbed out a lit cigar on his shoulder, when iced tea was thrown in his face, when four young black men were shot with pistols as he led a march against segregation in Decatur, Ala.
"I have been arrested and threatened," he said last week. "Even when I was a little boy, 12 or 13, a policeman hit me in the stomach with his night club. … It makes me hate violence."
At 91, Lowery has lived the civil rights movement, which comes full circle with the re-election and Monday's inauguration of President Obama, coincidentally, but with great symbolism, on Martin Luther King Jr. Day.
Lowery was one of King's closest aides and, in 1957, co-founded with him and Ralph David Abernathy the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, which led freedom marches and voter registration drives.
He also delivered the benediction at Obama's first inauguration in 2009, addressing the continued scourge of racism.
"We tend to think of them in the same breath," Lowery, who lives in Atlanta, said of King and Obama. "They are both committed to justice and brotherhood."
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Lowery describes his friend "Martin," who would have been 84 on Jan. 15, as "the most amazing person I have ever known," whose vision was rooted in his faith, a "gift" he also sees in Obama.
"Barack's background was entirely different from Martin's," he said. "But he is touched by human need and suffering and the belief that we have the same moral obligation to care for the needy and bless the poor."
Monday's inauguration kicks off a year of important commemorations that propelled the struggle for equal rights forward: the 150th anniversary of the emancipation proclamation and 50 years since the assassinations of President John F. Kennedy and Mississippi black activist Medgar Evers.
Besides comparable oratorical and intellectual gifts, as well as their spiritual faith, Obama and King share a theme of non-violence, Lowery said, which became evident in the wake of last month's Newtown, Conn., school shootings.
The president displayed such a commitment this week when he unveiled a sweeping plan to curb gun violence in America through an extensive package of legislation and executive actions not seen in a half a century.
"That was one of Martin Luther King's themes," Lowery said. "Nothing is more frightening to our future well-being than violence. … God help the nation that stands by and sees its children killed."
But some black leaders have lambasted Obama for not going far enough or fast enough.
Most recently, Princeton professor and activist Cornel West said the president is "obsessed with being on Mount Rushmore," worried more about his "legacy" than enacting change. He provocatively accused Obama last year of being a "Rockefeller moderate Republican in black face."
Lowery agrees that Obama has been "shackled by the political reality of our time" -- a divided Congress and a Republican Party that unilaterally set an unsuccessful agenda to defeat him in 2012.
But of West's comments, he said, "I am amazed that he wants to blame Obama for an issue over which he has no control."
Julian Bond, an adjunct professor of history at American University in Washington, criticized Obama for being "pokey and slow" to create change, a quality he also saw in King.
He was a student of King's at Atlanta's Morehouse College in the late 1950s learning about the then-recent Montgomery bus boycotts in a small philosophy class.
Bond, now 73, led protests that resulted in the integration of movie theaters, lunch counters and parks in Atlanta. In 1960, he was one of the co-founders of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), leading voter registration drives.
"The movement created the opportunity for there to be an Obama," Bond said. "[King] would be proud as punch to see Obama be president."
But King and Obama, being more than a generation apart, are "two different people," Bond admits, even though Obama shares many of King's beliefs and "both are thoughtful intellectuals."
"My biggest complaint is I want [Obama] to be more forceful and say to the Republicans -- 'It's my way or the highway,'" Bond said. "But I can't imagine him saying that."
In King's hometown of Atlanta, his sister, Christine King Farris, said racism was "still alive and well" and, as her brother cautioned, it might take generations to eradicate.
"The president is doing all that he can do, but change is slow," Farris, 85, who teaches a course in multiculturalism at Spelman College, said.
"My brother wouldn't take credit for anything," she added. "But I am sure he would have been pleased of the slow steps we've made. I just wish he could have lived to see a black man become president of the United States."
Robert Filner, who was recently elected the first Democratic mayor of San Diego in 20 years, said Obama might be a more effective advocate for progressive policies if he returned to his roots as a community organizer.
He forged a coalition of gay rights advocates, small business people and veterans to "hit the ground running" on issues like marriage equality, health care and other civil rights, Filner, who is white, said.