Correa was pulled Monday after swinging and missing at a pitch in the fourth inning. He grimaced in pain and walked around for a moment before trainers arrived. He was replaced by Marwin Gonzalez.
Correa jammed the same thumb on a headfirst slide at home plate July 4 and sat out the next day.
Correa, 22, is hitting .320 with 20 homers and 67 RBIs for the American League West-leading Astros. He drove in a run with a sacrifice fly in his first at-bat Monday.
The team says he will be re-evaluated Tuesday.
Keuchel hasn't pitched since June 2 because of a pinched nerve in his neck. The lefty likely will need multiple starts in the minors before he comes off the disabled list, but the Astros haven't yet determined exactly how many he will need.
The Associated Press contributed to this report.