Far fewer still, a mere 7 percent, think it's very effective to charge adjustable tolls on highways (that is, higher tolls when the volume is heaviest), or tolls on non-residents to enter the central areas of major cities during business hours. Even among people who live in big cities, just 15 percent support tolls on non-residents driving in, and just 10 percent see it as very effective in reducing congestion.
People may see tolls as ineffective because they don't want to pay them. Eighty-eight percent say they'd oppose a $5 toll to drive into city centers (a type of approach that's said to have been successful in London); opposition is equally high whether people drive into big cities or don't.
A substantial if less overwhelming majority, 68 percent, opposes adjustable tolls to try to spread the flow of traffic more evenly across the day; even in bad-traffic areas, it's equally unpopular.
Support for Policies
|Single-driver hybrids in HOV lanes||54|
|HOV lanes (if none now)||51|
|Single-driver tolls in HOV lanes||36|
|Higher gasoline tax||32|
The cost sensitivity expressed in anti-toll sentiment may reflect the price of gasoline, now averaging $1.91 for a gallon of regular unleaded. In any case, it extends to gasoline taxes: Americans by a 2-1 margin, 65 percent-32 percent, oppose higher gasoline taxes even if the money is earmarked for transportation projects.
HOV lanes -- though not broadly seen as very effective -- garner fewer objections. Among the seven in 10 Americans who don't have them in their areas now, 51 percent would support HOV lanes, while 43 percent oppose them. Support is higher in worse traffic areas, including cities and suburbs.
Sixty percent oppose opening HOV lanes to single drivers who are willing to pay an extra toll for the privilege – another anti-toll result. But 54 percent are in favor of another proposal, opening HOV lanes to single drivers of low-pollution hybrid vehicles in order to encourage the use of such cars.
Public transit is more available in the Northeast and West (seven in 10 say it's an option) than in the South and Midwest (five in 10). But it's not an especially attractive alternative: Among those who have public transit available, 52 percent rate it positively -- no better than the number who positively rate their local traffic.
Lack of convenience seems to be the main rap -- as noted, 93 percent of Americans say it's more convenient to travel by car. Fewer but still a majority, 56 percent, don't see a cost advantage either, instead saying it's less expensive for them to drive.
|If available, use it often||10|
|Use it to get to work||4|
Incentives are few and far between: Just 8 percent of people with jobs outside the home say their employers offer money or other incentives to encourage people to take public transportation to work.
There is a plus for public transit: People who know it best like it. Among those who use it, 69 percent rate it positively; 23 points higher than among those who don't. (Use of public transit peaks among city dwellers, minorities and lower-income Americans.)