A deeply divided Egypt is voting today on its new constitution, a document that could either help cement the country's journey from dictatorship to democracy or create even greater turmoil.
Rarely has a country confronted such a historic choice while so polarized: Nearly 1,000 people have been injured in violence leading up to today, including in the early hours of Saturday, when political opponents hurled rocks, burned cars, and brandished machetes in Alexandria.
But both sides have made an official decision to vote rather than boycott or fight, and most Egyptians today described a peaceful, large turnout. President Mohammad Morsi and his supporters in the Muslim Brotherhood have tapped into a massive political machine and are likely to have enough voters to approve a constitution they say will bring stability to Egypt.
A loose umbrella of liberal, secular Muslim, and Christian opposition groups have urged voters to reject the constitution, warning it gives Islamists outsize influence on daily life and allows for crackdowns on freedom of speech and women's rights.
Polls across Cairo appeared relatively calm. Local media reported a few irregularities but no widespread fraud or problems. In Alexandria, 1,500 Egyptian women blocked a main road after a judge prevented them from voting because they weren't veiled.
Some polling stations reported that they did not have the judges who are required to oversee the vote. About half of the 9,000 judges boycotted, forcing the government to make a last-minute decision to split voting across two successive Saturdays.
At a polling station in al Zamalak, one of the most anti-Morsi districts of Cairo, many waited for more than three hours to vote. At one point a government minister tried to cut in line, only to be angrily confronted by a voter and eventually pushed back. Otherwise, the crowds remained calm.
Here, in one of the richest areas of the city, opponents of the charter saw a vaguely worded document hastily adopted that could usher more conservative Islam into their society. But more often than not, their criticisms reflected a deep bias not against the text itself, but against Morsi and his allies in the Muslim Brotherhood.
"The people who have put it together are not representative of the country," said Malak Fouad, a consultant in Cairo and an American citizen.
Like many women in Zamalak, she painted the constitution as setting back women's rights.
"Women in this country are very much the breadwinners, from the very poor to the very rich," Fouad said. "And if their rights are not protected, they're just going to be slave earners."
Just a few miles away, a more sparsely attended polling station at the Bathata al Badya school in northern Cairo was filled with a crowd that seemed to be mostly supporters of the document. Each one echoed a single argument: the constitution will bring stability.
"It will put Egypt on the right track," said Nahed Mohamed, who works in the tourism industry. Asked about claims the constitution sets back women's rights, she replied, "I am an Egyptian woman. How would I vote yes if it were against me?"