Salling was charged with two counts: using the Internet to receive a photograph and video featuring "young girls" on Dec. 26, 2015 and possessing two videos also featuring "young girls" three days later.
The actor, best known for portraying Noah "Puck" Puckerman on "Glee" for six seasons, was arrested last December for alleged possession of child pornography.
Salling, 33, was at his California home at the time, the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department confirmed to ABC News. The actor was later released on bond, which was set at $20,000.
Although Salling was charged by the state of California, after federal investigators reviewed what they described as "thousands of images and videos depicting child pornography," the case was "referred to federal authorities," which resulted in his two-count federal indictment, the U.S. Attorney's Office said.
If convicted, Salling could face a maximum of 20 years in prison on each of the child pornography charges.
According to the U.S. Attorney's Office, Salling is expected to turn himself into authorities to be arraigned on June 3.
A rep for the actor has not yet responded to a request for comment.