Alfred Nobel, the wealthy Swedish industrialist and inventor of dynamite, endowed the physics, chemistry, literature, medicine and peace prizes in his will when he died in 1896. The Nobel Peace Prize, first given in 1901, has been awarded just over 100 times to over 130 individuals and organizations. Recipients are chosen by a 5-member committee appointed by the Norwegian parliament.<br><br>Nobel stipulated the prize be awarded for, "the best work for fraternity between nations, the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses."
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Maria Ressa and Dmitry Muratov
Journalists Maria Ressa and Dmitry Muratov won the Nobel Peace Prize on Oct 8, 2021. Messa, from the Philippines, and Muratov, from Russia, were awarded the prestigious prize "for their efforts to safeguard freedom of expression, which is a precondition for democracy and lasting peace."
Along with the notoriety, they will receive gold medals and share a cash award of 10 million Swedish krona ($1.14 million).
Berit Reiss-Andersen, chair of the Norwegian Nobel Committee, shows pictures of the 2021 Nobel Peace Prize winners Maria Ressa and Dmitry Muratov, in Oslo, Oct. 8, 2021.
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Rappler co-founder and CEO Maria Ressa smiles inside her home after being awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in Taguig, Metropolitan Manila, Philippines, Oct. 8, 2021.
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Novaya Gazeta editor-in-chief Dmitry Muratov at the Novaya Gazeta newspaper, in Moscow, Oct. 7, 2021.
World Food Programme
Villagers collect food aid from the World Food Programme dropped from a plane in gunny bags onto a drop zone at a village in Ayod county, South Sudan, Feb. 6, 2020.<br><br>Established in 1962, the United Nations World Food Programme is the world's largest humanitarian organization that delivers food assistance in emergencies and works with communities to improve nutrition and resilience, according to the website. The World Food Programme assisted 97 million people in 88 counties in 2019 alone.
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Denis Mukwege and Nadia Murad
Yazidi activist Nadia Murad and Congolese doctor Denis Mukwege were awarded the prize in 2018, "for their efforts to end the use of sexual violence as a weapon of war and armed conflict."<br><br>Here, Murad and Mukwege hug at the end of a press conference in Oslo, Norway, on the eve of the Peace Prize ceremony, Dec. 9, 2018.
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Abiy Ahmed Ali
Ethiopia's Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed Ali receives the Nobel Peace Prize from chairman of the Norwegian Nobel Committee Berit Reiss-Andersen during a ceremony in Oslo, Norway, Dec. 10, 2019.<br><br>He was awarded for, "his efforts to achieve peace and international cooperation, and in particular for his decisive initiative to resolve the border conflict with neighboring Eritrea."
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The Nobel Committee honored the Geneva-based International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons, "for its work to draw attention to the catastrophic humanitarian consequences of any use of nuclear weapons and for its ground-breaking efforts to achieve a treaty-based prohibition of such weapons."</br></br>
ICAN coordinator Daniel Hogstan, executive director Beatrice Fihn and her husband Will Fihn Ramsay pose with a banner bearing the group's logo after ICAN won the Nobel Peace Prize, Oct. 6, 2017 in Geneva.
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Juan Manuel Santos
Nobel Peace Prize laureates have ranged from Barack Obama to Martin Luther King, Jr., to Malala Yousafzai. <br><br>Colombian President Juan Manuel Santos won the 2016 Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts "to bring the country's more than 50-year-long civil war to an end," wrote the Nobel Committee. <br><br>President Juan Manuel Santos of Colombia attends a press conference at the Norwegian Nobel Institute, Dec. 9, 2016, in Oslo, Norway.
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Malala Yousafzai speaks during a press conference at the Library of Birmingham after being announced as a recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize, Oct. 10, 2014, in Birmingham, England. </br></br>The 17-year-old Pakistani campaigner lives in Britain where she received medical treatment following an assassination attempt by the Taliban in 2012. </br></br>She was jointly awarded the Nobel peace prize with Kailash Satyarthi from India "for their struggle against the suppression of children and young people and for the right of all children to education," wrote the Nobel Committee.
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The Nobel Peace Prize 2011 was awarded jointly to Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf, Leymah Gbowee and Tawakkol Karman "for their non-violent struggle for the safety of women and for women's rights to full participation in peace-building work," wrote the Nobel Committee. </br></br>Johnson-Sirleaf, President of the Republic of Liberia, in Berlin, May 22, 2007.
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Nobel Peace Prize laureate, President Barack Obama poses with his diploma and medal during the Nobel Peace prize award ceremony at the City Hall in Oslo, Dec. 10, 2009. <br><br>President Obama was awarded the prize "for his extraordinary efforts to strengthen international diplomacy and cooperation between peoples," wrote the Nobel Committee.
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Former president Jimmy Carter was awarded the 2002 Nobel Peace Prize "for his decades of untiring effort to find peaceful solutions to international conflicts, to advance democracy and human rights, and to promote economic and social development," wrote the committee. </br></br>President Jimmy Carter poses at the Carter Center in Atlanta, Sept. 14, 2011.
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Yaser Arafat, Shimon Peres & Yitzak Rabin
Palestinian leader Yaser Arafat, Israeli Foreign Minister Shimon Peres and Israeli Prime Minister Yitzak Rabin were jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1994, "for their efforts to create peace in the Middle East," wrote the Nobel Committee.
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The Nobel Peace Prize 1993 was awarded jointly to Nelson Mandela and Frederik Willem de Klerk "for their work for the peaceful termination of the apartheid regime, and for laying the foundations for a new democratic South Africa."
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Aung Sun Suu Kyi
Myanmar's National League for Democracy Party leader Aung Sun Suu Kyi in Kawhmu, Myanmar, Oct. 24, 2015. </br></br>Aung Sun Suu Kyi was awarded the 1991 Nobel Peace Prize "for her non-violent struggle for democracy and human rights," wrote the committee.
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Mikhail Gorbachev in 1987. </br></br>Gorbachev was awarded the 1990 Nobel Peace Prize for helping to peacefully bring the Cold War to an end.
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The Dalai Lama
The Dalai Lama attends the third day of Glastonbury Festival at Worthy Farm, Pilton, June 28, 2015, in Glastonbury, England. </br></br>The Dalai Lama was awarded the 1989 Nobel Peace Prize for opposing the use of violence in his struggle for the liberation of Tibet.
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Elie Wiesel speaks at a news conference after winning the 1986 Nobel Peace Prize for his work as a spokesman for Holocaust survivors.
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Archbishop Desmond Tutu
Archbishop Desmond Tutu in Washington, Nov. 9, 2007. </br></br>Tutu won the 1984 Nobel Peace Prize for "his role as a unifying leader figure in the campaign to resolve the problem of apartheid in South Africa," wrote the committee.
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Lech Walesa, the Polish labor leader, was awarded the 1983 Nobel Peace prize for his "contribution, made with considerable personal sacrifice, to ensure the workers' right to establish their own organizations," wrote the committee.
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Mother Teresa in Washington in 1985. Mother Teresa won the Nobel peace prize for humanitarian work in India in 1979.
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Menachem Begin, Jimmy Carter & Anwar Sadat
Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin, left, President Jimmy Carter and Egyptian President Anwar Sadat stand at attention after a meeting at Camp David, Sept. 18, 1978, in Washington. <br><br>Sadat and Begin were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for accomplishing peace negotiations in 1978. <br><br>President Carter will go on to win the prize in 2002.
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Le Duc Tho & Henry Kissinger
North Vietnamese Politburo Member Le Duc Tho, left, with National Security Advisor Henry Kissinger during peace talks on the Vietnam War at Gif-sur-Yvette near Paris, France, Nov. 23, 1973. <br><br>The Nobel Peace Prize 1973 was awarded jointly to Henry A. Kissinger and Le Duc Tho. <br><br>Le Duc Tho declined the prize.
Martin Luther King, Jr.
Civil rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr., waves to supporters from the steps of the Lincoln Memorial, Aug. 28, 1963, on The Mall in Washington, during the "March on Washington" where King delivered his famous "I Have a Dream" speech. </br></br>The civil rights leader was awarded the 1964 Nobel Peace Prize.
Jane Addams was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1931 for her pioneering social work and for founding the Hull House for underprivileged people in Chicago. Addams reading to children, circa 1890s.
President Theodore Roosevelt
President Theodore Roosevelt received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1906 for having negotiated peace in the Russo-Japanese war in 1904-5. He also resolved a dispute with Mexico by resorting to arbitration as recommended by the peace movement.