It's the first time U.S. Capitol Police have kept her in custody for more than a matter of hours.
Fonda is expected to appear before the U.S. District Court Saturday morning, according to a spokesperson from her organization, Fire Drill Fridays.
Actresses Rosanna Arquette and Catherine Keener also were arrested along with dozens of other climate activists inside the Senate's Hart Building.
Fire Drill Fridays is a weekly protest organized to pressure lawmakers into taking action on preventing climate change. Fonda's fourth protest centered on promoting women's involvement in the movement.
"Climate change is a women's issue. ... While the climate crisis threatens everyone, it especially impacts vulnerable populations, including women and girls," Fire Drill Fridays said in a statement.
Fonda's first arrest came on Oct. 11 after she vowed to be arrested every Friday until January to protest climate change.
"This is a crisis unlike anything that has faced humankind," Fonda told ABC News Deputy Political Director MaryAlice Parks. "The reason that I'm here every Friday, with Fire Drill Fridays, is because I think every single human being has to say, 'What can I do?'
"There's only one issue that will determine the survival of our species."