Are Arkansas' Natural Gas Injection Wells Causing Earthquakes?
Residents say the hundreds of earthquakes are linked to natural gas wells.
April 21, 2011— -- Hundreds of small and medium-scale earthquakes have been rattling the area around Guy, Ark., and residents say wastewater injection wells being drilled in their area are to blame.
"It gives new meaning to the term 'rock your world,'" said resident Johnny Passmore. "There is no foundation. You are just shaking and you can't go anywhere because it's shaking."
In February, shocks from a 4.7-magnitude earthquake near the town were felt as far away as Memphis, Tenn., the biggest quake in the region in 35 years.
These earthquakes are the newest development in the raging national argument over the safety of drilling for natural gas.
Josh Fox, the director of the Oscar-nominated documentary, "Gasland," questioned the industry's claims of natural gas as a clean energy source. His film is critical of a drilling method called hydraulic fracturing, otherwise known as "fracking," where fluid is injected into rock, breaking it to release natural gas.
In 2008, Fox said he was offered $100,000 to lease his 19 acres in Pennsylvania for natural gas drilling. He then launched a road trip across 24 states to investigate the environmental impact natural gas drilling was having on local communities.
Many of the families featured in the film told Fox they had developed health problems after leasing their land for hydraulic drilling. "Nightline" asked him to come with them to Arkansas to talk with people about their experiences with the earthquakes.
"People are your first level of scientific data," Fox told "Nightline." "You have to trust what the people are saying on the ground as your first level in any investigation."
Energy Companies Respond to Earthquakes
Just days after the 4.7-magnitude quake in February, state regulators pressured energy companies into voluntarily shutting down two injection wells closest to the fault line. Chesapeake Energy, now owned by BHP Billiton, owned one of the wells at the time.
"We do not agree with the conclusions," said Chesapeake Energy spokesman Danny Games in a recent television interview. "We believe there is a lot of natural seismicity in this area and there's a lot more sub-surface data, and science and facts that need to be brought to bear."
A public hearing is scheduled Tuesday for both sides to present their data and decide whether or not the injection wells should be re-opened. There is a moratorium on building any new injection wells until this summer.
"We have to side with that public safety concern and address that in a way that maybe science does not totally support," said Larry Bengal, director of the Arkansas Oil and Gas Commission.
In the hills of the Arkansas River Valley, the treasured serenity has been shattered.
Resident Dirk DeTurck said the shaking began late last summer.
"The ground just rolls," he said. "It just rolls. And it's like a loud thunderclap and the house shakes at the exact same time ... a lot of sheet rock cracking."
Since the two injection wells were shut down in March, the earthquakes have not completed stopped in Arkansas. But Scott Ausbrooks, a geologist with the Arkansas Geological Survey and a lead detective on the case, said they have tapered off dramatically.
"It's too much of a coincidence," DeTurck said.