Whites living in the southern and western states have higher rates of accidental deaths than whites in other parts of the country, which possibly stems from the "culture of honor" prevalent in these areas, according to new research.
Researchers from the University of Oklahoma define the culture of honor as "a characteristic of societies that place special emphasis on the aggressive defense of reputation," and data from two studies suggest their desire to be seen as tough and fearless might lead them to engage in risky behaviors that lead to accidental deaths.
Using data on deaths from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the researchers determined that states with honor cultures had a 14 percent higher rate of accidental death than non-honor states. More rural areas in honor states had an even higher mortality rate at 19 percent. They estimate that more than 7,000 accidental deaths a year are linked to the honor culture nationwide.
"White males living in non-metropolitan areas in the U.S. in honor states are more prone to accidental deaths," said Ryan Brown, a study co-author and associate professor of social psychology at the University of Oklahoma in Norman. "They may be living with reckless abandon -- by not wearing a seat belt or a helmet, for example -- as a way of demonstrating they are tough and brave."
In a separate study, the authors found that men and women who held beliefs related to the honor code were more likely to engage in risk-taking behaviors.
Experts familiar with the honor culture phenomenon say the findings are consistent with past research, although previous studies focused on homicide and other aggressive behaviors among white men toward others.
Richard Nisbett, author of "Culture of Honor: The Psychology of Violence in the South," pioneered research in this area to try and determine why insult-related homicide rates are higher in the mountain areas of the South than in other states. There are also higher rates of similar homicides in the dry plains of the Western states.
"The South has a culture of honor, which means that if you are threatened or insulted, you respond to that with violence or the threat of violence to maintain a stance as someone tough enough to take care of yourself," said Nisbett, who is also a professor of psychology at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor.
Nisbett said the honor culture originally arose after Irish and Scottish settlers came to the southern and western United States.
"The South was settled by people who kept herds for a living. Their livelihood depended on the herd, and that herd could be stolen in an instant, so they had to do whatever they needed to do to protect it," he explained. Northern states, on the other hand, were originally settled by farmers who didn't face the same threats.
Nisbett gave some examples of how the honor culture has influenced people's behaviors:
In the 19th-century South, if a young man were courting a young woman, he would have to talk to her father and her father would ask if the young man ever did any "sparking," or put his life on the line in combat. If the young man didn't, he wouldn't be permitted to date the young woman because he wasn't considered tough enough.
Andrew Jackson, who later became the seventh U.S. president, was in 100 documented violent arguments and even killed a man in one.