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Soccer player Tim Howard, one of the best goalies in the world, became an American hero with his record 16 saves in a match against Belgium at the World Cup last month.
But Howard believes his incredible athletic ability is helped by a secret weapon that lies deep inside his brain.
The soccer stud suffers from a neurological disorder called Tourette syndrome that causes him to constantly twitch involuntarily.
It's estimated that as many as 200,000 Americans suffer from a severe form of Tourette syndrome, and as many as one in 100 Americans show milder symptoms, according to the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, and symptoms usually begin in childhood. Boys are three times more likely to have the condition than girls and there is no known cure.
Howard was first diagnosed when he was 10 years old.
“I remember being so exhausted at the end of days ... trying to suppress it or maybe wait until I could get home in my room to really have an outburst,” Howard told ESPN. “People think they're hiding it, but it's very obvious to someone who has Tourette syndrome that they're being looked at and made fun of.”
As Howard struggled with the social stigma of the disorder, he flourished on the field, eventually becoming the top goalkeeper in the United States. Now, at age 35, Howard thinks his condition doesn’t hurt him, but rather helps him, tend goal. Howard believes his Tourette's gives him an edge with abnormally rapid reflexes allowing him to move faster than his opponents.
Olympic swimmer Anthony Ervin, who took gold at the 2000 summer games in Sydney, also suffers from Tourette's. He just reclaimed the national championship title in the 50-meter freestyle on Sunday.
“The only sign at first was an uncontrollable spasmal blinking, and I would just keep blinking,” the 33-year-old sprint swimmer said of his condition. “It was really, really fast ... and it would come in fits, and then I would kind of stop and I would almost be out of breath, because it was over.”
Whether his condition makes him one fastest swimmer in the country, Ervin said he can only speculate, but believes it does help him.
“There have been very positive ways that it has helped me,” he said, such as, “making me faster than everybody else ... most of the time.”
Ervin isn’t sure his Tourette’s gives him quicker reflexes, but he, like Howard, believes he can somehow turn the tics into speed.
“The way that I have come to understand my Tourette’s is that there is an over excitation of the nervous system,” he said. “I can channel all that nervousness better than a majority of my competitors.”
Researchers believe Tourette syndrome originates in the basal ganglia region of the fore-brain, the same section of the brain that controls many motor functions. Famed neurologist Oliver Sacks backs up the theory that Tourette’s can supercharge the brain, giving those with the disorder extraordinary quickness and swifter reaction times.
However, Dr. Jonathan Mink, who specializes in Tourette syndrome and other movement disorders at the University of Rochester, and is the co-chair of the National Tourette Syndrome Association’s scientific advisory board, is more skeptical, citing conflicting studies. He said the science isn’t there yet to definitively prove that Tourette's can help give athletes with the condition superior skills or make, say, a basketball player the next Lebron James.