The Red Sox tweeted that Victorino had a successful lumbar discectomy.
Earlier Tuesday, Boston manager John Farrell said he did not know how long Victorino had been dealing with the back issues or whether they were the root of his other injury problems this season.
"Low back and hamstrings are always going to be inter-related," Farrell said.
Victorino had been limited to only 133 plate appearances over 30 games this season, and he hit .268 with two homers and 12 RBIs. His contract with the Red Sox runs through next season.