May 5, 2010— -- The only thing worse than losing your loved ones in a fire is being falsely accused of setting the blaze. That's what some experts say happens around the country when the wrong fire investigator looks into the possibility of arson.
If five percent of the nation's half-million building fires every year are suspicious, according to Lentini, that means there would be 25,000 chances to charge someone mistakenly with arson.
"It's one of the few crimes where the state actually has to prove that a crime took place. And if they do that with bad evidence, and the jury believes that it's a set fire, many times there is no doubt about who did it," Lentini said.
"20/20" examines several cases in a report to air Friday where people claim someone was falsely charged, convicted or even executed based on bad fire science and puts those theories to the test.
"I can turn just about any fire into an arson fire if that's what I want to do," said Lentini.
Lentini, who has conducted over 2,000 fire scene inspections, outlines below what he considers the most-common arson myths in 2010.
The Five Most Common Arson Myths in 2010
Experts say that when a fire breaks out, a phenomenon called flashover can occur. Flashover is a transition point at which heat causes almost everything in a room to catch fire. When it happens, the natural patterns of the fire can be obscured or destroyed. V-shaped burn patterns, which often occur after a flashover, can be misinterpreted to indicate arson.
It's a common misconception that gasoline burns at a higher temperature than wood. It's actually the amount of ventilation that determines the temperature of the fire, not the nature of the fuel.
Fire tests have shown that "puddle" shapes can occur after a flashover.
The idea that a fire will not burn downward unless it has "help" is a simplistic explanation of fire behavior that doesn't take into account the flashover phenomenon. It was widely believed that burning on the floor, particularly under furniture, indicated an origin on the floor, and pointed toward arson.
Additional Myths Still in Favor in Some Quarters Today
Myths That Have Been Largely Discredited, And Are Only Used By Those Profoundly Unaware Of The Science