Aug. 26, 2002 -- Ken Wharfe, Princess Diana's chief bodyguard and one of her closest confidants, has written a controversial new book revealing details about her love life and his own belief that the princess helped cause her own death. Read chapter seven of Diana: Closely Guarded Secret.
'Gran-gran' was the pet name William and Harry used for their great-grandmother, the Queen Mother, while the Queen was always 'Granny'; but to the police, there was only one 'Supergran' — Diana's mother, the Honourable Mrs Frances Shand Kydd. To Diana she was simply 'Mummy', the one person in the world to whom shecould always turn. A great deal of nonsense has been written about the allegedly unsympathetic relationship between the two women, muchof it based upon the improperly understood notion that Frances 'bolted' while Diana was a child, abandoning her four children to runoff with another man after her unhappy marriage to Diana's father had failed. It is certainly true that Frances abandoned the marriage,but what is less often remarked is that she fought hard to keep custody of her two youngest children, Diana and Charles, only to be betrayedin a celebrated — indeed, sensational — court case by her own mother, Ruth, Lady Fermoy, who testified against Frances in favor of her aristocraticson-in-law Johnny, the eighth Earl Spencer. Even after the divorce and custody hearings were over, Frances did everything possibleto spend as much time as she could with her impressionable daughter and young son, Charles.
What I witnessed in private told a very different story from the widely held one of mother and daughter at odds with one another, forDiana and 'Granny Frances' (the boys' pet name for her) enjoyed aclose and loving relationship. When Diana was at her most troubled,and really needed the most private of counsel, it was to her motherthat she would always turn.
Whenever Frances came to Highgrove, or when we went to herhome near Oban in the west of Scotland, William and Harry were ecstatic. Diana's mother was an excellent mediator, and at Highgrovewas one of the few people capable of breaking the bitingly coldsilences that reigned between Charles and Diana. Journalists tended toassume that because the Princess and her mother lived so far apartgeographically, contact between them must be limited. In reality theykept very much in touch, and whenever Diana wanted to escape withher sons, we would decamp en masse for Scotland to her mother'sremote hideaway for a healthy dose of normality. The young princesloved these visits, and they were always a tonic to Diana.
At the time Frances lived in a whitewashed farmhouse on theremote island of Seil, a few miles south of Oban. As with any proposedvisit by the Princess, private or otherwise, I would be sent in advance toensure the place was secure. Although such an investigation would bevery discreet, it was essential to liaise with the local police at Oban,who enjoyed a good relationship with Frances, and to ensure therewere enough rooms in the nearby Willowburn Hotel at Balricar forback-up protection officers. It is not too much to say that Seil was thesetting for one of the best holidays the Princess and her sons ever tooktogether, far outshining the more glamorous and exotic foreign tripsshe made that the press highlighted.
In August 1989 the three of them spent a week-long holiday withFrances. It could not have come at a better time, for the Princess wasclose to breaking point. Seil and the surrounding area had everythingthat two active and adventurous small boys could hope for. With thesea on its doorstep, open countryside, river inlets and rowing boats, itwas better than any adventure playground.
Good forward planning meant that we arrived there undetected bythe media. It delighted her that here her boys were able to play as normalchildren away from snoopers, and away from the restraints of royallife. Diana, too, had complete freedom. She was able to go off on longsolitary walks without me or the back-up officers. I knew that she wasrelatively safe on the island, but as a precaution I insisted that shealways took with her a police radio tuned to my waveband, in case sheencountered difficulties. This was, I think, a measure of the level oftrust that had developed between us since I had taken over as her seniorpersonal protection officer. True, I was not acting by the book, anddoubtless my superiors would have been horrified, but it worked. ThePrincess appreciated our working relationship and the freedom itbrought her, and for weeks afterwards her feelings of being trappedwould seem to evaporate.
One of Diana's many qualities was that she really was, at heart, anatural girl who liked taking care of others. She took no domestic staffwith her when she went to visit her mother. It meant she could reallybe herself. Perhaps curiously for a woman of immense privilege, sherelished the domestic chores which the absence of her sometimesover-attentive staff allowed her. She delighted in doing the dishes afterdinner and in washing everybody's clothes; she even offered to iron myshirts, though I initially declined. Eventually, however, I relented andhanded one of them over, joking with her that I could not imagine theQueen ironing one of my colleague's shirts. The image of Her Majestystanding at an ironing board with one of her shirtless bodyguardsbefore her sent the Princess into fits of giggles.
As she stood in thekitchen with just a towel wrapped around her, ironing my shirt,William joined us. He had developed the idea that his mother had acrush on me and, being full of mischief, put this to her. The Princesstold him not to be so silly, at which he suddenly tugged at her towel sothat it dropped to the floor, leaving the wife of the heir to the thronenaked before me. Diana slowly picked up the towel, covered herselfagain, and promptly burst out laughing.
There was a relaxed family atmosphere to her holidays on Seil thatwas especially welcome because it was so rare in a life filled with officialfunctions and all the other trappings of royalty. I helped prepare themeals that the family and I would enjoy at Frances's old table. Wewould sit there eating, drinking and regaling each other with storiesfar into the night. Such times were truly golden, and I am glad to havebeen able to share them. Much of this was owed to Frances, a decent,down-to-earth woman, humorous, intelligent and kind, who has been,and sometimes still is, much maligned. During the days, as I kept thetwo princes occupied, the Princess was able to discuss with her motherthe full implications of her increasingly desperate situation.
Franceswas the perfect sounding board. Not only was she a sympathetic ear,but she had a wealth of experience in marital disharmony, having beenthrough one of the most celebrated divorces of the sixties.She knew of the private relationships of both her daughter and herson-in-law, but still gently urged Diana to fight to save her marriage,knowing that she still loved Charles, if only for the sake of her sons.Frances, more than most people, knew the agony of being separatedfrom her children.
Just over a year later, Frances came to stay at Highgrove for theweekend at the invitation of the Prince who, curiously, for he liked her,timed it so that he was away and Diana had the run of the house. It waswonderful for the princes to have Granny Frances around, and theycould barely contain their excitement when she arrived. As always,Frances revived her daughter's flagging spirits. It was one of thosebeautiful September weekends when the summer seems to have forgottenthat autumn is already here. The weather was perfect forlounging beside the pool, and there the two women, so similar in characterand looks, sat and talked for hours. It was not difficult to guesswhat they were discussing. Both were genuinely sad to be parting whenMonday morning came. They promised not to leave it so long beforethey met again. Then Diana embraced her mother on the steps beforewaving her off.
I had, and have, a great deal of time for Frances Shand Kydd. Shedid everything she could to support her daughter, but also to saveDiana's marriage, if only for the sake of William and Harry. Herwisdom, her experience, her kindness, were always at Diana's disposal,and the Princess knew it, and was glad of it. Sadly, however, by theautumn of 1990 matters had reached a point beyond any person'srepair.
Throughout her life within 'the Firm', senior members of the royalfamily privately disapproved of Diana's headline-grabbing acts ofpublic caring. In reality, however, they all, Prince Charles included,coveted the positive media attention she attracted. It is undoubtedlytrue that since her death the royal family has embraced much of thestyle and many of the ideas she pioneered.
To accuse the Princess of cynically using the sick and dispossessedto bolster her image, as some commentators have done, is as unjust asit is untrue. As I know only too well, there were many occasions whenshe would have preferred to have stayed at home playing with hersons. That she did not was because she felt a clear sense of her duty, aswell as a profound sense of responsibility to the ordinary men andwomen who often waited for hours to see her. She never willingly letanyone down.
From an early age, Diana wanted to help those less fortunate thanherself. She was by nature a giving person, but during the first few yearsof her marriage, when she was in her early twenties, she lacked theconfidence to put her wishes into practice. By the late 1980s, however,she was beginning to realize her power and potential. She was alsogenuinely interested in how other people coped with their given lot.
The late Cardinal Basil Hume and the Princess were kindred spirits.They forged a close friendship and Diana even flirted for a time withthe idea of converting to Catholicism.* (*The Queen's cousin by marriage, the Duchess of Kent, converted to Catholicism;the Duchess's sister-in-law, Princess Michael of Kent, is a Catholic by upbringing.) She once asked me what Ithought of the idea but, perhaps too glibly, I told her that she wouldmake an interesting subject for the priest who heard her confession.Nonetheless, I am sure that the only reason she did not join theCatholic Church (as her mother had done) was because she was worriedabout the backlash from the royal family if she had done so.Ironically, the bar on the heir to the throne marrying a Catholic islikely to be one of the reforms that will be introduced before PrinceCharles becomes King.
Diana's first experience of the harsh reality of homelessness camein September 1989 after Cardinal Hume (Archbishop of Westminster,and thus the Roman Catholic Primate of England and Wales) invitedher to make a private visit to the Passage Day Centre in Carlisle Place,near Victoria in Central London. The center, run by the CatholicChurch, was located in a large basement, where there were kitchens,tables and, above all, heaters. On the day of the visit I placed twopolice officers, dressed in shabby clothing, down there to monitorsecurity, since we could hardly adopt a stop-and-search policy for asympathetic visit. They were already in place when the Princess and Iarrived at around 10.30 am on 11 September. Most of those using thecenter were sad cases, people simply cast aside or forgotten by society;many were hooked on drugs or alcohol, or tormented by mental illness.
Since no member of the royal family had ever done anything likethis before, the Princess was naturally apprehensive as she steppedfrom the car to be greeted by Cardinal Hume and Sister BarbaraSmith, who were waiting on the pavement outside the center.
That day, Diana had discarded her designer clothes and was dressedin jeans and a sweatshirt. Once inside and with the formalities over, Idecided to give her a free hand. For about an hour she chatted easilyto these desperate people, discussing the conditions they lived in andthe food available to them, and a hundred other things besides. Ishould stress that, in 1989, I doubt whether any member of the royalfamily would even have contemplated making such a visit. PrinceCharles, to his credit, has since followed Diana's lead, as have Williamand Harry (although they made some of these visits with theirmother), but the royal family's involvement with these and similar lessglamorous causes would never, in my opinion, have come about butfor her example.
She was without doubt a pioneer, and a brave one atthat. Her life would have been a great deal easier — and a great dealless beset by criticism — if she had simply sat back, dressed extravagantlyand looked good at royal engagements, and deferred to herhusband. But Diana was different; more importantly, she wanted tohave a positive effect on the world around her. What she lacked in formaleducation she more than made up for with an inquiring mind anda desire to learn from firsthand experience and face-to-face meetings.
At the center, she simply sat down among these unfortunates andtalked to them. For obvious reasons, a policeman's experience of thehomeless, of alcoholics and drug addicts, and of the mentally disturbed,is not always a happy one, but as I watched Diana at work myfears lifted. This woman, who herself came from a privileged backgroundand had married into one of the most famous and richestfamilies in the world, did everything she could to appreciate her conversants'situation and understand what had led them to such despair.
Within minutes the skeptical ogling and transfixed stares had disappeared,and for a brief while these down-and-outs seemed to forgetwho she was. Despite my decision to let her mix freely, I remainedclose to the Princess just in case of trouble. It was a prudent decisionbecause at one point a florid-faced man, whom I would have guessedto be in his mid-forties, unkempt and wearing filthy clothes, suddenlydecided to confront her. Breathing alcohol fumes all over her, helaunched into a tirade.
'It's all right for the likes of you to come down here just for half anhour. You want to try living on the streets …'
As I prepared to move him away, Diana turned to me, indicatingthat she did not want me to intervene. As he reeled off his complaints,peppered with expletives throughout, she remained calm and relaxed.'It's okay, Ken,' she whispered, 'I'm fine.'
She then looked the red-faced man in the eye and, without flinching,replied:
'Well, the reason I am here is to see exactly what it is like, so that Ican help in any way I can.'
That serene, unflustered and above all, sympathetic response wonover those around the man, and he was shouted down. He had made apoint that worried the Princess, however. In the car on the way backto Kensington Palace it was clear that his comments still preyed on hermind.
'Perhaps he's right, Ken,' she said, as she mulled over the criticism.Trying to reassure her, I told her that what she was doing was right.'Ma'am, you must be true to yourself. Follow your instincts and youwon't go wrong.'
For a few seconds she sat in quiet contemplation. Then, speakingwith complete and uncomplicated honesty, she said, 'This is the work Iwant to get involved in from now on, Ken. If I can make somethingpositive happen for these unfortunate people, and people like them,then there is a place for me.'
It was a theme to which the Princess would continually return as,in the years that followed, she strove to stamp her humanitarian markupon the world. She was always conscious that she was open to thecriticism that she was only doing it for self-publicity. Nothing couldhave been further from the truth. Many of her visits were carried outin private, and she put just as much into an engagement, if not more,when the cameras were not there as when the media turned up enmasse.
She would return many times to the Passage Day Centre, sometimesaccompanied by her two young sons. Yet again she wasdetermined that although the princes had been were born to privilegeand wealth, they should understand the difficulties faced byothers less fortunate than themselves. It is a lesson that William andHarry have never forgotten, and for which Diana should be for evercredited.
In the autumn of 1989 James Hewitt, the man whom Diana wouldlater tell the world that she had 'adored', was sent to Germany on atwo-year posting. He had originally agreed to accept ceremonialduties * (* Primarily based in London and Windsor, the site of the monarch's two principalresidences, the officers and men of the Household Cavalry perform many ceremonialfunctions, from mounting guard at Horse Guards in Whitehall to finding escorts forstate occasions.) at headquarters — which had given him the freedom to conducthis affair with Diana — on the understanding that he would be transferredto active duty if he was given command of his own tanksquadron.
For the sake of his career he had no choice, having beenpromoted to squadron commander with the rank of temporary major,but to take the posting, especially as tension was growing in the Gulfand the British Army was on high alert. Perhaps realizing the effectthat news of his posting would have on the sometimes volatile Princess,he did not tell her until the last possible moment.
At first Diana tried everything in her power to prevent Hewitt fromaccepting the posting. She even suggested that she would raise theissue with his commanding officer. James, horrified, since such a movewould almost certainly have wrecked his army career (to say that theHousehold Cavalry would have frowned on one of its officersconducting an affair with the wife of the heir to the throne would be amassive understatement), insisted that she would do no such thing. Hewas, in any case, by now beginning to suspect that her passion for himwas starting to fade, for it was now that Diana, who always craved attentionand who felt that the one man on whom she thought she coulddepend had betrayed her by accepting his move to Germany, beganseriously to question the sense, as well as the safety, of pursuing therelationship. Their conversations on the telephone became less frequentuntil, without telling Hewitt, she resolved to end the affair. Bythis time she had already invited or encouraged the attentions ofJames Gilbey.
I am convinced that Diana believed that by allowing her affair towane and die she was somehow adopting the moral high ground overher husband, who continued his liaison with Camilla Parker Bowles.She and Hewitt scarcely spoke for the rest of the year as he trained histank crews in Germany. In the dying days of the year Berlin's youth atlast tore down the Wall, and the curtain literally came down on the oldpolitical order. Meanwhile, in Iraq, Saddam Hussein plotted his nextmove.
With Hewitt out of the way, and largely out of mind, Diana threw herselfinto her work. She took all her patronages — and she was patronto a good number of causes — very seriously, but none more so thanthe English National Ballet. Significantly, after she quit public life inDecember 1993, giving up most of her causes, she remained patron ofthe charity. Perhaps, because of her girlhood ambitions. One night inDecember 1989 we left Kensington Palace at just after 8.10 pm anddrove the short distance to the grand, white-fronted residence of theFrench Ambassador at 11, Kensington Park Gardens. The Princess wasin an ebullient mood, full of laughter and excitement, and was particularlylooking forward to the half-hour performance that had beenspecially arranged for the evening, and which was to take place afterthe opulent dinner, served in a giant marquee in the residence'sgarden, and before coffee was taken.
'I can't wait,' she gushed, her mind on the performance to come.'Mr Gorlin [the then Chairman of English National Ballet] has toldme it will be just exquisite.' I have a great love of opera and classical music, but I have to admitthat ballet is not my forte. In fact, I was considerably relieved that theperformance was limited to thirty minutes, although I did not let thePrincess know this. To her, ballet was a passion, and she regarded thefact that she was patron of the English National Ballet as an enormousprivilege. Even the dreary realization that she would have to put onanother public performance of her own for the English NationalBallet's wealthy benefactors, like the Marchioness of Douro, theHonorary Chairman, or billionaire's wife Mrs Lemos, Co-Chair of theGala Committee, for once did not burden her. Gracefully, she took herplace at the top table after a short champagne reception in the residence'sgrand dining room.
One of the events of the evening was a prize draw, held after dinnerand the ballet performance (which, I'm sorry to say, largely passed meby), and before the auction, designed to raise more money from well-fedpatrons for the English National Ballet. At around 10.35 pm,therefore, the Earl of Gowrie drew the lucky prize ahead of the auction.As usual I had bought a few raffle tickets, some for me and somefor the Princess who, like most royalty, rarely carried cash, but wasoblivious of proceedings until my name was suddenly read out by LordGowrie. I had won second prize. Fully expecting to collect a bottle ofmid-range vintage champagne, I was astonished to be told that myprize was a five-star, all-expenses-paid holiday to Malaysia, staying inone of that country's most lavish hotels. The Princess, predictably, collapsedinto fits of giggles at my good fortune (and my predicament asto whether or not to accept it).Still laughing, she edged away from the crowd around her andjoined me. 'You could always take me, Ken,' she whispered, 'I could dowith a good holiday.'
After some hesitation — well, who wouldn't think twice? — I decidedto give the prize to the Princess, so that it could become one of the lotsin the auction, and thereby raise more money for the charity. We drovehome in high spirits, the Princess enthusing about the ballet performancethat had been the high point of her evening, and I completelybemused by my good fortune (even if I had been unable to accept it).Sadly, a few weeks later I learned that the Ambassador's magnificentresidence had burned down. The gala evening in aid of the EnglishNational Ballet was the last grand function ever held there.
James Hewitt's absence affected Diana to a considerable extent,despite her feeling that the affair should end. She was often moody,sometimes tearful, and occasionally furious, venting her rage againstthe unfairness of life in general and her situation in particular. Yet itexerted an even more self-destructive influence upon her, for with herlover no longer around to distract her, Diana's attention turned toCamilla Parker Bowles. Her antipathy for 'that woman' was absolute.Despite the fact that she had been involved in an illicit love affair herself,her frustration over Charles's relationship often caused thePrincess to boil over into a rage. Moreover, while both our principalsenjoyed their clandestine encounters the strain of keeping thingssecret fell upon Colin Trimming and me as, respectively, the Princeand Princess's protection officers. Looking back, I realize that this wasprobably our hardest test.
One memorable evening, Diana came to the realization that shecould take it no longer. At a party for Camilla's sister, Prince Charles'sthoughtless behavior ended in a confrontation between his mistressand his wife.
It was, according to the Princess herself, one of the bravest acts ofher entire marriage; the moment when she finally faced her demonsand confronted Camilla Parker Bowles face to face about her affairwith Prince Charles, and her refusal to give it up.
The setting was a house on Ham Common in Richmond, on thesouthwestern outskirts of London, the home of Lady AnnabelGoldsmith, where, to use Diana's word, a 'ghastly' party was being heldto mark the fortieth birthday of Camilla's sister, Annabel Elliot.Nobody, least of all the Prince himself, expected Diana to go, but shehonestly believed that it was her duty to put on a show of unity withher husband, despite the fact that almost every guest at the party knewabout his affair with Camilla.
The Prince was displeased that Diana had chosen to go, and in thecar on the drive down to Ham Common he 'needled' (Diana's word)her constantly, questioning the sense of her attending. Sitting silentlyin the front passenger seat, I honestly did not know what to expect ofthe evening ahead. Nor did the Princess. She had told me beforehandthat she had no intention of kissing Camilla when she greeted her, andI had agreed that that was her prerogative. 'I'll stick out my hand andsee if she takes it,' she said, though more to reassure herself, I suspect,than to canvass my approval.
I honestly do not think that the Princess had planned to confrontCamilla that night, but the way in which events unfolded left her — aproud woman — no choice. It was clear on our arrival that many of theguests were surprised at Diana's presence, but soon after the royalentrance the underlying hum of meaningless social chatter again filledthe room. After a while dinner was served, and, satisfied of the safety ofmy principals, I left the party and retired to the kitchen, which I quiteoften did at private parties so that Diana could relax. By her ownaccount (printed in the revised edition of Andrew Morton's Diana: HerTrue Story that appeared after her death), she kept her end up wellduring dinner, and her fears of a difficult evening began to seemunfounded. Then, after the meal, she noticed that neither her husbandnor Camilla Parker Bowles were anywhere to be seen. Shedecided to find out what was going on, although several of the otherguests tried to dissuade her.
I had been in the kitchen for about an hour and a half when Iheard the Princess calling my name. I replied that I was in the kitchenand a few moments later she appeared at the door, tearful and clearlydistressed. She told me that Prince Charles and Camilla Parker Bowleshad been absent for some time, and she was adamant that she wantedto find them.
'Will you help me, Ken? I have had enough. This is just too much,'she said. 'I am not going to be shown up in this way. I want to talk toher — now.' It was not my job to persuade her otherwise. Nevertheless,I tried, questioning the wisdom of making a scene, but failed.'Ma'am, are you sure that this is a good idea?' I replied — if I amhonest, as much for my own sake as for hers. I had not the slightestwish to be dragged into a marital row between the Prince and Princess,perhaps with Mrs Parker Bowles involved as well. But Diana would notbe persuaded otherwise, and she immediately led me down some stairsto the basement of the house, which appeared to be a children's areaor play room. Sitting in one softly lit corner, deep in conversation,were the Prince and Camilla. As soon as they saw Diana they leapt totheir feet, perhaps acknowledging their guilt. As may be imagined, Ifelt particularly uncomfortable and made to leave, but the Princesssoftly urged me to stay.
'Please don't go, Ken,' she said, as though somehow my presencewas helping to give her the strength for what she was about to do. ButI felt it was wrong that I should be party to what was, after all, asupremely personal matter. Certain that no harm — physical harm, anyway — would come to the Princess, I replied, in the general direction ofall three of them, that it was not my place to be there, and excusedmyself. With that I left the room, deeply embarrassed, to kick my heelsat the foot of the basement stairs. Anxious for Diana, I decided to stayas close as possible without intruding.
The Princess remained there in conversation for a few minutesbefore joining me outside. She seemed elated. She had seized themoment and had confronted her husband's mistress, and she haddone so without being anything other than calm and coolly polite.She told me that she had asked Camilla if she wanted to sit down,and had then asked her what exactly was going on between her andCharles. Diana herself takes up the story: 'It wasn't a fight — calm,deathly calm and I said to Camilla: "I'm sorry I'm in the way, Iobviously am in the way and it must be hell for both of you but I doknow what is going on. Don't treat me like an idiot." ' A few secondslater she composed herself and returned to the party, where the clashof the two women was already being discussed in hushed,conspiratorial tones.
Personally, I found the whole business extraordinary. Even allowingfor the difficulties in the marriage, what possible need could therehave been for the Prince and his mistress to conduct a clandestinemeeting at a crowded party at which the Princess was also present? Itwas a terrible insult to Diana, and the only charitable interpretation Ican put upon it is that both Charles and Camilla had believed thattheir absence from the party would not be noticed.
Diana walked back into the room with her head held high, and Iadmired her immensely for it. The Prince and Camilla returned a fewminutes later, still shaken, as much by Diana's resolve as by her decisionto confront them. For the rest of the evening they circulatedseparately as though nothing had happened.
By contrast, the journey back to Kensington Palace was, as can beimagined, chilly and tense, with Diana repeating to her silent husband,over and over again, 'How could you have done this to me? It was sohumiliating. How could you?'
Diana was not strong emotionally. She had made her point succinctlyand with dignity, but later, when she was alone, her fortitudedeserted her and, by her own account, she 'cried and cried and criedand didn't sleep that night'. Seeing her that evening, my heart wentout to her, a young woman desperate to be wanted by the one manwhom, I believe, she loved completely.
Prince Charles is not a bad man, but in this instance his treatmentof his wife, and especially his willingness to allow her to be humiliatedvirtually in public, was unforgivable. The fact that he and Mrs ParkerBowles had been privately conducting an adulterous affair was irrelevant.What tore the Princess in two, wrecking her emotionally, wastheir readiness to humble her publicly without apparent remorse.From that moment Camilla became 'the Rottweiler' — Diana's nicknamefrom then on replacing her usual euphemisms like 'that woman'and 'his lady'. More importantly, however, Diana now knew, once andfor all, that her marriage was over. After that close encounter her referencesto Camilla became fewer. It was not that she had given up whatshe privately called 'the struggle', just that she no longer had the stomachfor it.
'Ken, there comes a time when you just don't care any more. Thattime has come. I just don't care any more,' she said. From the absolutecalm of her manner, I knew that she meant it.
Excerpted from Diana: Closely Guarded Secret, by Ken Wharfe, Michael O'Mara Books Copyright 2002.